|Drinking Establishments |
Drinking establishments in Kleindeuchland fell into three categories.
were frequented by workers in a given trade while were
popular with natives of a given area in Germany. The beer gardens, or the rooms
they contained, were meeting places for the
large variety of clubs and organizations the Germans belonged to.
Many Beer Gardens grew into a conglomerate containing meeting halls,
ballrooms, bowling allies,
club rooms, bars and more.
Basement or celler bars which catered to the rougher elements and often offered prostitutes.
- A local saloon where respectable workers could go for a drink.
- Family places like the beer gardens where the whole family went to
drink, sing and be entertained.
The beer garden was an important part of German America life.
People worked 6 days a week and
it was in the beer gardens that the entire family congregated on Saturday afternoons and
Sunday evenings to eat, socialize,
sing and drink beer.
There were numerous of these establishments throughout the German American neighborhoods
in the New York Metropolitan area - Jersey City, Hoboken, Brooklyn and lower Manhattan.
Some were very large and could accommodate up to 1,000 people.
Music, smoking and beer drinking were the most important components of the beer garden,
but many also had other types of entertainment. Everyone, "even the baby is sure to be treated
to a modicum of the ruddy malt." [The Illustrated
London News, Dec 3, 1864]
German Americans were very family oriented.
Germans parents rarely went out without their children. Entertainment, diversions and holidays were for the whole family.
"In 1853 one of the popular summer gardens on the Bowery was the
Vauxhall, just opposite Peter Cooper institute on Forth ave.
Opened in 1806 the stars of its first bill were Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Allan Poe,
parents of the poet,
whose performance, according to the contemporary reviews, "showed
not too much talent". Later the Vauxhall became the headquarters for P. T. Barnum's
variety show - forerunner of vaudeville. About the same time (1852) Edward P.
Christy, famous minstrel man, opened White's Varieties at No 17
Garden theaters and concert saloons, as they were called,
continued to multiply along the street. Among the more famous was the Atlantic
Garden at 50 Bowery, where German plays, "Orchestrion" concerts and solo
singers drew family groups for years.
Other such places of entertainment were the Liberty (later the National)
Garden at 104 Bowery, the Pacific Garden at No. 54 and the Theater Garden at No. 78.
Most of them seated over a thousand persons."
Some Beer Gardens in 1859
The Evening Independent Massillon, Ohio 17 August 1948
The New York Sabbath Committee, a temperance group very much opposed
to Sunday beer drinking,
listed several theaters and
their performances of dramatic entertainment, comedies, singing, ballet
band and orchestra music (both "classical"
and newly composted), as an example of the
corruption of the Sabbath by the beer halls. They claimed the list of
examples of the entertainment
"most just and impressive method of bringing the evil in question to the
knowledge of the reader."
The theaters listed were:
New York Stadt Theatre, 37-19 Bowery -
Kmuschka's Concert Hall, Ave A (With Serious and Comical Duetts, and Solos,
and Band Music) -
Constanzer Brewery, 565-576 4th street -
Buson's [Busam's] Fortuna Hall, 220 Second Street
Harmony Gardens, 139-145 Essex street -
Central Hall of Social Reformer, 28 Grand Street -
Eustachi's Volk Theater, 4th street -
Tulp's Thalian Hall, Ave A -
Germania Hall, 42 Ave A -
Strauss was a popular component of the entertainment.
Halls and Assembly Rooms
Lower East Side German societies of
various types (singing, shooting, gymnastic) held annual
meetings, dinners, and balls. Occupational organizations also held
annual meetings, dinners and balls. In addition, they often held rallies to
discuss workers rights issues. There were also numerous political meetings.
Veterans of the wars (War of 1812, Civil War) held anniversary events.
Holidays such as Carnival, July 4th,
Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Years Eve were celebrated with balls.
The Lower East Side was studded with Gardens, Halls and Assembly Rooms
large enough to accommodate the crowds who attended these events.
A look at a few of these establishments gives some idea of the diversity of uses
and events among the Germans of the Lower East side between the 1850's to 1900.
Some of the More Popular or
Famous Beer Gardens - Meeting Halls
Beethoven Maennerchor - 210-214 E. Fifth Street
1870: The Beethoven Maennerchor inaugurated a new club House on Fifth street.
In celebration the gathered at their old headquarters on 6th street and had a coral performance.
They then marched in a procession in a circuitous route through the neighborhood to the new hall.
The society was composted of about 300 member of whom 100 were active.
In 1874 The Beethoven Maennerchor gave a children's festival on Christmas
evening at its hall on 5th street. There was an illuminated Christmas tree and the children received gifts.
"The Beethoven Maennerchor is one of the oldest singing
societies of New-York, and one of the few that have had a
continuous life of more than thirty years.
It was founded in 1859 by eight young German-Americans,
who had the love for the German song as ardently on this
side of the Atlantic as in their boyhood days in the Fatherland."
New York Times
March 17, 1895 - New York Times
1895: In December
the Beethoven Maennerchor celebrated the 25th anniversary of the the dedication
of its Hall and clubhouse at 210-14 Fifth Street.
1903: The Beethoven Maennerchor sold it property known as Beethoven Hall a
four story building at 210 East Fifth Street on a 50 x 96.2 feet plot.
1911 map NYPL digital collection
Buson's [Busan's] Fortuna Hall - 220 Second Street
Francis (Franz) Busam was the owner of the
Busam's Fortuna Hall in 1855. When he was naturalized in 1854 in
the court of Common Pleas,
he gave his address as 260 Second Street and he
renounced the Grand Duke of Baden.
1855: "The Germans of the Eleventh Ward
met last evening, at Fortuna Hall, Second-street,
and ratified the Mechanics' Hall ticket."
1855: A New Years Eve ball was held at Busam's Fortuna Hall
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1857
1858: Second street near ave B -
"Bussom's" Fortuna Hall a meeting of the
Democrats of the 11th and 7th wards - November.
1861: The Zweibrueckeners had a Thanksgiving festival at Busam's Fortuna Hall
"where a rare
array of national dishes loaded the board."
1861: October 20 - A German Union
meeting was held in the Eleventh Ward,
at BUSAM's Hall, No. 220 Second-street
1860 - 1862 or thereabouts :
"Busom's Fortuna Hall, 220 Second Street.
Sunday, December 11. Great and Extraordinary
entertainments by the family Fahn, in the afternoon,
3 o'clock. Dramatic, Humorous Singing Comical
Duetts, Dances, etc. in the evening,
at 7 o' clock Vaudevilles, Operetta
and Farces with songs. Grotesque and Modern Ballet
Dancing Entrance Free"
1866: A meeting to ratify the
proceedings of the Philadelphia convention
was held at Busam's Fortuna Hall Second street, August.
1866: A large Union supporting
political rally was held in Busam's Hall on Second street. September 1.
Excise tax -
Busam Francis 220 2nd street, Ret Liquor tax $10
Residence Place: New York City, New York, USA
Publication Title: Trow's New York City Directory, 1867-68
New York City, New York, USA
Publication Title: Wilson's Business Directory of New York City, for 1867-68
No occupation listed.
1868: A Thanksgiving Ball was given by the Columbia Scheutzen
Corp at Fortuna Hall
1869: Franz Busam, age 49, died May 4, 1869 #33049 Manhattan.
Henrietta Goedel Busam, wife,
was the designated executor of the estate of Francis Busam who
wrote his will February 2, 1864 age 45. He left
his personal estate and
two lots in ground in Union Hill,
New Jersey and potentially an estate from relatives in Germany.
He signed the will Franz Busam. They do not appear to have had children.
When she died in November 1904 she left her
estate to Greenwood Cemetery and two nieces -
the daughters of a brother or brothers.
1869: December a meeting of the German
Citizen's Association was held at Busam's Hall in Ave B.
1873: Meetings were held in
September at Fortuna Hall
1875: Henrietta Busam age 51 was living in Brooklyn.
1880: Henrietta Busam
23 Yates av
Brooklyn, New York, USA
widow of Francis Busam
Publication Title: Brooklyn, New York, City Directory, 1880
The Emanu-El Brotherhood of the
Lower East Side held services for a time around 1903
at the Volk's Lyceum at 220 E 2nd
Street near Avenue B. (American Jewish History
By Jeffrey S. Gurock)
1906: The City Record listed Emanuel Brotherhood at 220 E 2nd street.
Map circa 1868 NY Public Library digital collection
This section of the map shows 2nd and 3rd streets at Avenue B.
220 E 2nd street is indicated with the arrow.
Red building are of brick. Yellow of wood. Green indicates a
commercial or other enterprise that may be dangerous for some reason -
usually a fire related hazard - perhaps a bakery. White indicates open space.
The Fortuna Hall building takes up almost the entirety of two large lots.
There is only the smallest open space at the left middle.
Concordia Hall - 20 to 30 Avenue A (East Side
between 2nd and 3rd streets) - The building still stands
See Raines Law and
Concordia Hall on Avenue A was a popular place for
political rallies and motivational speeches. The building that housed
Concordia Hall dates to 1871.
I have only included a few of the numerous listing in
the papers from 1871 on.
In 1874 Otto Ahrendt was the keeper of Concordia Hall. He was still there in 1877.
However by 1880 Hugo Kladivko was running Concordia Hall. Ahrendt was
still in the business - he had a restaurant and Tropical Winter Garden at 102 and 104 West 47ht street in 1883.
1871: The German American Teachers
association met in Concordia Hall Avenue A in October.
1871: Surviving members of the 20th Regiment of New York Volunteers
held an anniversary festival in Concordia Hall 28 Ave A in commemoration
of the battle of Antietam fought Sept 17, 1863 in which
41 regiment members were killed and 142 wounded.
1873: A meeting of the Association of German House-owners
and tax payers of the 10, 11 and 17th
wards was held at Concordia Hall in September to devise a method to deal with the overcrowding in the ward school.
1873: December 8th - The Rhinish Scuetzenbund gave its 2nd annual ball at Concordia
1874: In 1874 Otto Ahrendt, the proprietor of
Concordia Hall at nos 28 and 30 Ave A, was held for $1,300 bail, for
infractions of the Sunday laws. Charges were brought by
the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile
The Scandalia Quartet club, a singing society, was at Concordia Hall
in Avenue B in January 1874, despite the Sunday Laws.
1875: Otto Ahrendt was restrained from having performances at Concordia Hall
without a licence.
1877: Otto Ahrendt was the proprietor of the Concordia Assembly rooms.
1877: In October and November
cigar makers on strike met at Concordia Hall.
The annual ball of the Separate Troop Calvary took
place in Concordia Hall in January 1878.
1878: On Sunday evening November 3 the Concordia Hall on Avenue "B" sponsored two events:
A ball for about 300 young people for 35 cents admission upstairs, A variety show downstairs of 10 censt
10 cents admission. Beer was served and the mostly German crowd was orderly.
1879: Separate Troop A Calvary held it annual ball at Concordia Hall 28 Ave A.
"Company B, Eleventh Regiment, Capt. Freitag commanding, will
have its annual ball
at Concordia Hall, No. 28 Avenue A, to-morrow evening."
1881: Concordia Hall on Ave A was the head quarters of
the Republican party for the District.
New York Times, January 11, 1880
1880: The Peter Albers Association ball was held
in Concordia Hall a German resort
kept by Hugo Kladivko in Avenue A near Second Street.
1880: October 15,
Naturalization of Hugo Kladivko restauranteur
14 Avenue A,
denounced the Emperor of Austria.
The German and Hungarian musicians of
this city are going to have a "gay and festive"
time on the 9th of this month. Hugo Kladioko who formerly kept
the Hotel Liszt, on Fourteenth Street, next to Steinway Hall,
has moved over to Avenue A, and though that neighborhood is
one of the most unfashionable in the city, to put it mildly,
his friends have not deserted him. Concordia Hall is part of his
establishment, and there he is going to give an "artist's" ball.
The committee comprise Rafael Josefiy, Max Vogrich, August Wilhelmj, Ad. Neuendorf,
Dr. Damrosch. Edouard Remenyi, Rudolf Bial and other well known musicians.
Fraulein Geistinger, Cottrelly, and Jaunischowsky will be among the guests,
and Mr. Kladioko is making great preparations for the reduction of
various national dishes to be washed down with lager beer and Hungarian wines.
Every ticket entitles the holder to a carriage to and from the ball.
If there will not be a good time at that ball, I am no judge.
With two such leading spirits as Wilhelmj and Remenyi at the helm look out for fun.
1881: An artist ball was given in Concordia
Hall in February.
The proprietor was Hugo Kladivko. The establishment had a
superior dancing floor, excellent dressing room and a large gallery.
It was beautifully decorated.
Musical Record and Review, Issues 105-156
1882: In April the Republican Association of the
10 Assembly District met at Concordia Hall Avenue A.
"A resolution was passed approving the veto of the Anti-Chinese bill."
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
1884: February 17 and 26, Cigar workers on strike held meetings at concordia Hall.
1885: Listed at Avenue A between 2nd and 3rd streets when the Cigar Makers
Protective Union held a ball there in March.
In support of the brewers strike the metal workers and food producers associations
met at Concordia Hall.
1889: Real Property for sale at auction
"The most important was of "Concordia Hall," Nos. 28 and 30 Avenue A.
It was offered under foreclosure to satisfy a third mortgage on which
over $35,500 is due and bids were taken over the first and second
mortgages which aggregate $50,000. The first bid was $1,000 over
said mortgages and the last $24,500, or a total of $74,500. The
name of R. S. Newcomb was given as the purchaser, but the real buyer
is Moritz Bauer, defendant in the foreclosure proceedings.
1891: Speeches were given at Concordia Hall in October 1891.
Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide, Volume 44
1895: Germany American political meeting held at Concordia Hall 28 to 30 Avenue A.
Large numbers of citizens of the Lower East side met at Concordia Hall to protest the passage of the Raines liquor
1899: Otto Ahrendt was arrested and taken to the Jefferson Market court
where the judge protested that he did not understand why the police spent so much time and energy
prosecuting excise violations when there were so many worse crimes being committed.
Otto Ahrend had a licence to run a hotel but not to serve beer and have music. The judge said that any decent hotel would serve beer and have entertainment.
1899: In 1899 it was proposed to convert the Concordia Hall into a court house.
At that time it was described:
"The large room is fairly lighted, at the easterly end, by windows
opening on the yards of the adjacent lots, and at each easterly corner
by windows opening on light shafts; on the Avenue A end the light is ample.
There are two ventilators in the ceiling. So long as the adjacent lots remain
as they now are, the light and ventilation will be sufficient, but, this
being an interior lot, the possibility of adjacent owners building up to
rear lines of their property ought to be considered. This being a tenement
district, it is not probable that such buildings will be erected,
but the possibility should be provided for, if a long lease is itentered into."
By New York (N.Y.). Sinking Fund Commissioners
Map circa 1868 NY Public Library digital collection
This section of the map shows Avenue A between 2nd and 3rd streets.
28 - 30 Avenue A is indicated with the arrow.
Red building are of brick. Yellow of wood. Green indicates a
commercial or other enterprise that may be dangerous for some reason -
usually a fire related hazard - perhaps a bakery. White indicates open space.
The hall takes up all of the available space in the double wide lot.
The footprint of the building is the same today.
NY Public Library digital collection
Avenue A between 2nd and 3rd East Side 1933. Concordia Hall is the building
with the spire and the
long street sign.
Otto Ahrendt was the proprietor of the Concordia Beer Garden in 1874.
1870: Ward 17, 1st between 1st and second ave.,
Shrendt, Otto age 29, LB Saloon born Germany, Rosa age 20
1870: Otto Ahrent was listed twice in 1870. Ward 17,
Ahrendt, Otto age 29 Beer Saloon $1,000 born Berlin,
Rosa age 20 born Wurtenberg, Schmit, Mary age 20 , servant
1872: Otto Ahrendt
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1872
30 Av A
New York, New York, USA
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1877
1880: According to his 1880 passport Otto Ahrendt, age 38, born Berlin,
May 12 1841 a naturalized citizen of the United States,
was five feet six inches tall with blue eyes and light blond hair
1880: Otto and Rose went to Germany and returned on the
Westphalia, 15 September 1880, occupation merchant,
Cabin Class, from Hamburg to New York, five pieces of luggage
1883: By 1883 Otto Ahrendt had a
restaurant and Tropical Winter Garden at 102 and 104 West 47th street.
1885: Otto Ahrendt was keeping a
concert saloon at 102 and 104 West 47th street when one of his waiters was arrested for
breaking the Sunday excises law.
1891: No 219 E 76th street n. s. 230 e 3rd Ave, 25x102.2 four story brick tenement ; John H.
Boeseenecker to Otto Ahrendt and Rosa his wife, $18,000
Mr. Otto Ahrendt
5 Feb 1896
Age: 51, merchant, U S citizen,
Native country, Germany, to New York, cabin class,
Port of Departure: Rotterdam
Port of Arrival: New York, New York
Ship Name: Amsterdam
8th avenue near West 25th street,
Otto Ahrendt 59, hotel keeper, immigrated 1856,
Rosa Ahrendt 50, 1 child 1 living,
Ottera Ahrendt 7, adopted daughter,
Mary Granzow 27, mother of adopted daughter,
Guiseppo Aristohle 38, bartender
Otto Ahrendt 74,
Mary Ahrendt 43
1920: Wycoff Ave, Brooklyn, Otto Ahrendt 78, born Berlin, retail merchant candy,
Mary Abrendt 48, wife
From Singing to Sofas: The History of the Burger-Klein Building
for a history of the building.
Constanzer Brewery - 565-576 4th street
Carl J. "Diem's" Thaeter und concert Salon (AKA Carl
Loewen-Halle) 301 Houston Street (1858) (Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840-1940
By John Koegel, 2009)
On August 17, 1858 the day they New York celebrated
the success of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, Alumni
of the German University of Jena celebrated the
Third Centennial Anniversary of the founding of the institution at the Constanzer Brauerei on 4th street.
Many German university graduates attended as well as a number of Americans.
"The celebration was kept up in regular German Students' style till a late hour in the morning." (The New York Times)
During the Civil War between 1861 and 1864 there was a
shortage of small denomination coins.
Tokens worth about a penny were privately minted to
be used in lieu of government coins. Undertakers, saloon owners, butchers,
beer hall owners and others minted their own tokens. The token pictured here
was issued by Carl Diem of the Constanzer Brewery at 565 & 567 4th street.
Carl Diem, born 1826, was listed with his wife Louise age 54 and son Gus age 20,
in the 1880 census in New York as a Lager Bier Saloon Owner address
West 38th street, born in
He was also listed in 1870 age 45, with as a lager
bier saloon - value of real estate $15,000 and value of personal property $1,000.
He died in New York in 1901 at 323 West 38th street.
At the time he was survived by his wife, Louise, his son,
and two grandchildren, Paul Arnold Dantel son of his daughter Bertha Louise,
and George Karl Diem, son of his son Gust Adolf Diem.
He owned the property at 323 and 325 West 38th street.
1857: Carl J Diem
565 4th street was at or near Avenue D.
Civil War Tokens
Eagle Hall - Chrystie and Delancey
1850: October 1860 -
Major T. D Smith of the Governor's Guard was the
Eagle Hall corner Delancey and Christie streets and Military Hall 193 Bowery.
In 1850 Military Hall was the oldest and most well
established "military rendezvous", for company drills, elections and meetings.
Major Smith had just recently finished
Eagle Hall which had the largest drill room in the city. The room was also used for balls.
He had also refurbished Military Hall. He had
"embellished" the bar room covered the floors with
"splendid oil cloth". Many military companies held their
annual balls at Military Hall.
1851: Swedenborgism - a lecture and debate will take place at Eagle Hall, Delancey street
near the Bowery, New York on Sunday afternoon on Swedenborgism
and Spiritual Knockings. (Swedenborg (1688-1772) founded a religion in which
he believed that
the spirit left and body and roamed around during sleep. Hence dreams.
Spiritual Knockings were conversations between the living and the dead and
were a basic principal of Swedenborgism.)
1853: In December 1853 a funeral for a child was held at 158 Delancey street.
1856: Eagle Hall at Chrystie and Delancey became a Turn Hall.
1857: The Eleventh Regiment rented the
Eagle Hall as a Armory.
"Military - To Let from first of May the
large drill room 65 feet square with committee rooms
attached at Eagle Hall corner Chrystie and
Delancey st. in quite at 163 Bowery, from
11 to 1 o'clock or 7 to 8 in the evening."
1858: The Schllerbund Singing Society gave its first
public performance in Eagle Hall in 1858.
The Eleventh Regiment Washington Rifles, N. Y. S. M
leased the two upper floors of the
of Eagle Hall , corner of Delancey and Chrystie Streets,
for five years, at a rent no higher than $1,250 per year.
1869: July 25, "The anniversary of the battle of
Idstedt during the
Schleswig-Holstein war was celebrated by the
Sclewsig-Holstein Association at Eagle Hall corner of
Delancey and Chrystie streets."
On July 25, 1850 the Battle of Idstedt ended the first
Schleswig War a military conflict between northern Germany
and souther Denmark. 27.000 Schleswig-Holstein troops
fought 40,00 Danish soldiers. The Germans did
not win the battle
outright but gained some concessions form the Danes.
The celebration started at 5:00 P. M.
the July 25th anniversary.
Speeches were given commemorating the battle and the dead.
Songs were sung. A general social entertainment followed.
The event was attended by both men and "ladies".
Many of the men who participated had fought in the battle.
Schleswig-Holstein was under Danish rule from 1846 to 1864.
1869: Armories corner Delancey and Chrystie
1871: October Eagle Hall corner Chrystie and
Delancey street was used by the Turnverein a for the Turn
1871: Occupied Armories rooms corner Delancy and Chrystie streets
(11th Regiment) rent $4,000.
1872: A meeting of the Officers of the 11th Regiment met at the "armory"
at the corner of
Chrystie and Delancey.
1873: The committee on Armories and Drill-rooms put forth a motion
to move the 11th Regiment from
its headquarters on Delancey street to
Nos 37 and 39 Bowery.
The barkeeper at 26 Delancy, "Nellson Hall", was summoned as
a witness in the court martial of
of Sergt. Hauser on the 11th Regiment on chartes of mutiny and conduct
"prejudicial to good order."
By 1893 The University Settlement was renting a "house" at 26 Delancey street.
Map circa 1868 NYPL digital
This map is a bit disorienting. Delancey actually runs East West and Chrystie tuns North South.
The large building shown in greed is the Eagle Hall. It was on the north east corner
of Delancey and Chrystie.
In 1924 the corner of Chrystie and Delancey was described thus:
Beginning at a point on the Northeast corner of Chrystie Street and Delancey
Street; running thence Northerly along the Easterly side of Chrystie Street 100 feet;
thence Easterly parallel with the Northerly side of Delancey Street 100 feet;
thence Southerly parallel with the Easterly side of Chrystie Street 100
feet to the Northerly side 113 of Delancey Street; thence Westerly along
the Northerly side of Delancey Street 100 feet to the point or place of beginning.
Said premises being known as Nos. 20, 22, 24 and 26 Delancey Street
and 154, 156 and 158 Chrystie Street.
Germania Assembly Rooms - 42 Avenue A
Established 1859 (Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840-1940
By John Koegel)
George W. Sauer ran the Germania Hall for a number of years.
He was a
Civil War veteran.
The sum of twenty-five hundred dollars is hereby appropriated to be paid out of the
treasury of the State, to Major George W. Sauer, in settlement of damages sustained
by him upon account of loss of horses, and other expenses, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-one,
in equipping and perfecting a detachment of the third regiment cavalry, National Guard, State of
New York, and the Comptroller is hereby directed to
draw his warrant upon the
Treasurer for the payment to . Major George W. Sauer, of said sum of
twenty-five hundred dollars.
1868: The Hairdressers Association gave a Thanksgiving Ball at the Germania Hall in 1868.
Laws of the State of New York, Volume 2
By New York (State)
1869: Germania Hall 42 Avenue A
1874: In December 1874 Troupe H of the Third Regiment Calvary had its annual
ball at the Germania Assembly Rooms.
It was well attended by its member and by the National Guard.
1874: Major Sauer of the Germania Halls met with
the police Commissioner to discuss the Sunday Blue laws.
The rent for the Germania Assembly Rooms at 291-293 the Bowery in 1874 was $25,500 per year.
George W Sauer was the proprietor.
1874: On Christmas Day the Saengerrunde (a German volcal group)
had a drawing for gifts followed by a ball at the Germania Assembly Rooms.
1876: "Major George W. Sauer", of the Third Regiment Cavalry, celebrated his twenty-fifth anniversary as a
member of the National Guard by a ball at Germania Assembly Rooms in October
1877: 2,700 liquore dealers in Manhattan had
complied with the law and obtained liquor licenses in 1877. Complaints were leveled
against the Police Department for harassing dealers who had filed their applications and
paid their money but not yet received renewals because of the paperwork
stress at the Excise board.
In August Major George W Sauer represented the German Liquor Dealers Association.
He was indignant that the government of a "free" county could
dictate what a person could eat and drink and when he could eat or drink it.
"It is only here in "Free" America that we see an insolent, overbearing Police dragging
innocent citizens and tax-payers to jail because an obsolete law,
worthy of the dark ages, has been dragged from olbivion by a legal dicision."
In December Major George W. Saner [Sauer] stated that the whole issue of liquor licenses
had been arbitrarily and unjustly dealt with.
1877: George W Sauer was a member of the Committee of Arrangements
who were meeting in May 1887 to adopt resolutions favoring the repeal of the Excise law.
1878: The Germania Assembly Halls was "brilliantly lighted" when the Manhattan
Turn society held their
first ball of the season in November 1878.
1880: The 1880 census listed on First street, Geo. W. Sauer 51, liquor dealer,
Louisa Sauer 43, wife,
Emelia Sauer 18
Rose Sauer 15
Tilly Sauer 14
Lottie Sauer 8
Mary Sauer 3
Gertie Sauer 1
Gustav Rubel 29, son in law, musician,
Minnie Rubel 19, daughter
1905: George W. Sauer died March 8, 1905. His obits indicated that
Major George W Sauer was with the Third Regiment Calvary.
He was active in the German singing society celebrations. In the 1890 he had a place
called Atlantic Casino,
on 8th ave at 155th street. In 1899 he was blind and owned the
Klondike Hotel at 59th street and Broadway where he lived with his
wife and unmarried daughter when a fire broke out.
He was born September 1, 1827 and died March 8, 1905.
1906: Fred Bollmer committed suicide in his saloon at 42 Avenue A by
attaching a tube to the gas jet and putting it in his mouth.
He left a note saying he was tired of living and wanted to join his brother,
Jacob, who had died. Fred and Jacob had been partners in a saloon at 15th and Avenue A.
The article stated that Jacob's wife and child died in the General Slocum disaster
a few months later Jacob committed suicide.
Note: Mary Vollmer, age 36, and her children, Joseph age 16, Auguste age 9
and Magdalena age 7 all died in the Slocum on June 15, 1904.
Joseph "Vollmer", age 36 committed suicide June 17, 1905, a year after the Slocum.
See General Slocum disaster
NY Public Library map circa 1868
The footprint of the Germania Assembly rooms is much smaller that Busam's or Concordia.
Still it covers every available inch of the lot leaving no yard or open space at all.
The church at the right is the Most Holy Redeemer, 173 3rd street,
a Catholic church built in 1851.
German Catholics were numerous in Kleindeutchland.
Harmony Gardens (Harmonia Hall) - 139-145 Essex street
Harmonia Hall AKA Harmony Garden had several owners over the years. In 1870 it belonged to the
partnership of Henry Goering and George Eckels. By 1885 it was owned by Christian Supps.
1859: 145 Essex street was listed as a slaughterhouse belonging to
Mr. Henry Hyde when a fire broke out in January of that year.
1859: At the 9th annual festival of the New York Turnvereins on Whit Monday in June
of 1859 Germans turned out to march to Elm Park. Different groups gathered at different
places to begin the march. The numerous Glee Clubs started from Harmony Gardens
on Essex street at 8 o'clock in the morning.
They marched though Grand Street, Bowery, up Broadway and down Canal to Spring street
where boats awaited them. At least 6,000 people gathered to celebrate in Elm Park.
1860: April - There was a meeting in a large hall at
Harmony Gardens on Essex street of about 400
German cabinetmakers and piano makers in an effort to
keep prices up and express solidarity with striking shoemakers in Lynn.
1860: October - The New York Turnverein gave a performance
of singing, dancing and gymnastics
to benefit the German Free School.
1861: Civil War recruits from the United States Vanguard were quartered at Harmony Gardens.
1861: Harmonia "Garten" held a Thanksgiving ball.
1862: June 25, Meeting of honorably discharged Union soldiers to
petition the government for the payment of a $100 bounty promised at enlistment was held at Harmony Garndes on esses street.
1863: Christmas night there was a ball at Harmony Gardens on Essex street.
1868: The Kunitz Light Guard gave a Thanksgiving Day
ball in Harmony Graden in Essex street.
1870: The partnership of the proprietors of the Harmony Ballrooms and Restaurant
at 139, 141, 143 and 145 Essex street was disolved by mutual consent.
Henry Goering was responsible for all debts. George Eckels and Henry Goering.
1870: George Eckels and Henry Goering were both
listed at 143 Essex street in the 1870 census.
"Gering", Henry age -0 [30?], ret lig dealer, Anna M age 20, and Eckels,
George age 30 ret lig dealer, Charles 10 and Lilly age 7
In 1865 George Eckels had an eating house and a ret lig dealership at
13 Rivington in partnership with Peter Watteru[?]
1872: Henry Goering
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1872
1872: About 150 German bakers met at Harmonia Hall
at 145 Essex street to organize a strike for a 10 hour workday and a 50 cent increase in wages.
They had been working 12 to 16 hours a day.
1872: June, wheelwrights and blacksmiths met at Harmonia Hall
145 Essex street to call for a general strike. The previous
day wood turners, saw miller, engineers planers, and moulding makers had
met at 145 Essex street for a similar purpose.
1873: Henry Goering,
143 145 Essex,
Publication Title: Goulding´s Business Directory of New York, 1873-74
In July 1873 Harmony Gardens maintained a low profile on Sunday evenings. The front door was closed
and the shade were pulled down. There was a fair crowd of customers but they kept the laughter and other noise down.
1874: In 1874 George Eckels was a member of a committee of German
saloon-keepers who met with the police commissioner in reference to the
recent order for suppression of the
Sunday theaters. At that time he was listed "of the Beethoven Maennerchor Hall"
1874: A Masquerade ball was given at Harmony Gardens
in Essex street in January 1874. Permission was given by the police in spite of the Sunday laws.
1876/1877: Henry Goering,
Publication Title: Goulding´s New York City Directory for 1876-77
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1880
1880: List of registered voters in the 8th assembly
district Lawrence Lang and Christian Supp at 145 Essex street.
1883: L. Lang was the proprietor
and Christian Supp the manager of Harmony Rooms 139
and 146 Esses street when they opened
Ocean House in Rockaway Beach - a hotel and iron pier
with the best accommodations for picnics and parties.
1885: January 30,
The Sangerlust Society had a ball at Supps' Harmony Rooms a 139-145 Essex street.
Price Carnival was inaugurated. There was drinking, dancing and singing and pretty blond German
girls in costumes.
1885: November Christian Supp proprietor of a
beer shop on the first floor at 145 Essex street under
the Harmony Rooms applied for a renewal of his excise licence.
His lawyer produced a diagram of the property
showing that Supp's place was not connected to
the Harmony Rooms and stated that no performances were given
in the rooms. The Judge wanted to inspect the property
before granting the licence.
An argument was made that the Judge had granted a
licence to the Metropolitan Hotel without inspecting it.
Weren't the rights of a poor man equal to a rich hotel keeper?
Action was delayed.
Christian Supp obtained a
excise license for the bar at Harmony Hall nos. 141 to 145
Essex street by agreeing to put a false door over a vestibule door
leading from the hallway to the assembly rooms.
1883: November 13,
Christian Supp was the proprietor of the lager beer saloon at 145 Essex street known as Harmony Hall.
Mr Supps' request for a liquor licence renewal was turned down. It was stated
that the saloon was on the ground floor of no 145 and was separate from
the hall on the second floors of 139, 141, and 143 Essex street -
that the hall was used for meeting and not for "theatrical exhibitions" and there was no connection between the two establishments.
The commissioners visited the locality and found a door between the saloon and the
hallway that led to the meeting rooms. It was agreed that if the door was permanently closed a license could be issued.
1888: Annual reception of the Peter Braun Association at Harmonia Rooms 139-145
Essex street December 16
145 Essex street is between Rivington and Stanton.
NYPL digital collection c 1868
Harmonia Hall was at Nos. 139, 141 and 143 Essex street.
1870: 143 Essex Street, Gering", Henry age -0 [30?], ret lig dealer, Anna M age 20
Naturalized April 1873, Henry Goering, saloon keeper,
139 Essex, common pleas court
1873: Passport application. Born
Bavaria August 15, 1843 5 feet 6 inches,
dark brown eyes dark brown hair., naturalized April 1873, common pleas court
1880: Goering H age 38, Marie wife, age 41, 173 Essex Street, saloon, born Bavaria
1878: Christian Supp,
Street address: 178 Essex,
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1878
1880: 145 Essex Street,
Christ Supp 39, proprietor of the Harmony Restaurant and Brewery, born Wurtenburg,
Josephine Supp 30, born New York,
Annie Burkart 42, sister in law
1883: Christian Supp,
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1883
Birth Date: 30 Oct 1841
Death Date: 22 Aug 1892
Cemetery: Old Saint Raymonds Cemetery
Burial or Cremation Place: Bronx, Bronx County, New York, USA (Find a Grave)
Josephine born March 25, 1849 died Feb 5 1895
1893: Probate for Christian Supp, October 20, Ward 23,
left everything to his wife, Josephine.
1895: Probate of Josephine Supp - widow of Christian Supp -
to the Church of the Immaculate Conception of 151st street,
New York $1,000 for masses for the repose of the soul
of Christian Supp and herself - $100 to father John Deuges of
the Immaculate conception - to her sister Eliza Lutz widow $50 -
to Caroline Supp wife of Henry Supp $50 - to
her nephew Henry Burckhardt son of Baltasar and Eva $200 -
to her nephew and niece William Burchardt and Louisa Meyer children of Baltazar and Eva
in trust $500 -
- the remainder of the estate to to William and Louisa
Hillenbrands (Metropolitan Rooms) 156-170 Hester street
1850: In April The Confectioners Benefit Society held its first meeting at Hillenbrand's
Hall on Hester street. The group was princely made up of German bakers.
The German locksmiths also held a preliminary meeting at Hillenbrand's in April.
another meeting held at Hillenbrand's was composed of
iron and metal workers including blacksmiths,
tin smiths, locksmiths, coppersmiths, and others.
1851: 11th Ward polling place Hillenbrand's 170 Hester.
Sugar bakers met at Hillenbrand's Hall, 160 Hester street in April 1853. The were
seeking an increase in wages
from as little as 87 cents and a much as a dollar a day to a larger wage
of $1.25 for a 10 hour day for all sugar bakers. A sugar baker or sugar refiner
worked in a sugar refinery and
processed the raw sugar into white granular sugar.
Sugar bakers suffered for a form of eczema called sugar baker's itch.
1855: Mechanic's Hall - 160 Hester Street.
June 24 -
About 40 Frenchmen met to commemorate the Parish insurrection of June 1848 and the Bread Riots.
"French songs sung - German lager bier drank - and American cigars smoked." A good time was had and the party lasted until late.
1859: January 14 - A gathering of the "Red Republicans of all nations"
met at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester street to celebrated Orsini's
assault on Louis Napoleon. Speakers addressed the gathering in five languages.
1859: In 1859 the Schillerbund society celebrated
the one-hundredth birthday of the German poet, Fredrich Schiller,
with a concert on Nov 10 in the Metropolitan Rooms in Hester Street.
1860: Feb 17 - Master bakers met at 160 Hester met to devise some
"mode of protecting their interests against the enterpriser of Mr. Hecker, who by
the aid of large capital and machinery sells larger loaves of bread that it is possible
for them to do at the same price."
1860: February 24 Liquor Dealers Association met at the
Metropolitan Rooms Hester Street.
1860: March 6, Liquor Dealers Society met at 160 Hester street.
1862: The Teutonia Maennerchor a singing group met at
Hillerbrandt's Metropolitan Rooms for their annual festival.
About 600 people attended and were entertained by vocal and
instrumental music and a ball in the "elegantly decorated saloons".
1862: March -
The Germania Sing Verein held a
ball at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester Street where "masking and mumming*"
were the "order of the day". It was one of the most "good-humored, jollity" of the season.
Almost the entire crowd was in masquerade. The refreshment
rooms and the dancing hall were brilliantly lit. The dancing
hall was lighted with several massive chandeliers,
with illuminated globes "yielding more tone and color than bare,
staring gaslights could." The rooms were
festively decorated with both American and German colors.
An excellent band played,
waltzes, polkas and reels. Around midnight a burlesque was given.
*Mummers were originally bands of masked persons who during
winter festivals in Europe paraded the streets and entered
houses to dance or play dice in silence.
1864: The Musical Mutual Protection Union met at the
Metropolitan Rooms 156- 160 Hester street.
Musical Mutual Protection Union
1869: Company B of the 5th Regiment national
Guard held target practice and summer's nights festivals. The convened at
the 5th Regiment armory on Hester street, marched for several blocks,
then took cars to Hamilton Park.
June - Auction foreclosure - 158 160 Hester street -
entire furnishings, fixtures, in the lunch, billiard, meeting and lodging house - bar, counter, shelving,
mirrors, "splendid" billard tables, balls and cues, chairs, benches, round and square tables,
glassware, crockery, clocks, engravings, knives and forks, desks, icebox, two large kitchen ranges, copper boilers,
Brussels carpets, etc.
1869: September - Irish Fenians met at
the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester street.
1870: Milk dealers association met at 160 Hester street in August.
1871 and 1872: The 5th Regiment National Guard met over Hillenbrand's lager beer saloon
at 156-160 Hester Street. Rent was $2,500 per quarter.
Meeting of the Irish exiles of the 14th ward was held in august.Z
1872: 5th Regiment at 156, 158, and 160 Hester street in fair condition with a leaky
1872: The Societa D'Italiani Cittadini de Nuova York
met at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester street in September.
1872 - 1877: John Lammer was listed at 160 Hester, (beer, liquor, and no occupation)
The milk dealers union met at 160 Hester to establish prices for milk for the winter.
Retail prices were 6 8 and 10 cents a quart.
The lower price milk containing a larger percent of water to milk.
1881: McGlory's Armory Hall 156, 158 and 160 Hester street near
the Bowery throughly overhauled -
one of the best dancing and variety halls in the city - best dancing, best music.
Admission free. Jewish Ball every Sunday evening.
1887: Armory Hall Vaudeville Theatre 158 to 160 Hester Street All Star Novelty Company Every Night.
1887: December Armory Hall Vaudville Theatre the finest company in America.
Hughes, and Clark, Frankie De Forrest and Southern Serenaders under management of Billy Speed.
1888: June - "Billy McGlory's notorious dive, Armory Hall at 258 and 160 Hester street"
was closed by the Board of Health
and condemned as unfit for human habitation.
Sanitary inspectors had been through the building several times in the preceding months
and had ordered that it be repaired, cleaned and disinfected.
The Armory had formerly been the home of the 5th Regiment until they were mustered out in 1880.
"Billy McGlory secured it and under his proprietorship it obtained
a reputation as a dive where the wildest and most immoral
orgies were committed. Billy was sent to prison from it,
but opened again on his release." (The Evening World June 8, 1888)
Billy McGlory was a saloon keeper and underworld figure. See
1889: Thomas C Smith sold 156, 158 and 160 Hester street,
with the four-story brick building thereon known as " Armory Hall".... He sold other properties
at the same time.
Real Estate Guide - NY times - four story brick building and two three story brick buildings with a plot of land,
134.3 by 99.2 by 133.11 by 100 - 156 to 160 Hester street southwest corner by 108 to 110 Mott.
Valuable Property for Auction March 27, 1900,
156, 158 and 160 Hester - 7 story and basement - brick, stone and iron building with
large plot of land - also 108 and 180 1/2 Mott street.
1834: March 1 birth
1861: New York National Guards
1862: Joseph Hillenbrandt was the Captain of Company E 5th (Light Infantry) Militia, Jefferson Guard
- 2nd Lt Reg't 3 birg 2 1857
- 1st Lt Reg't 3 Brig. 1 1859
- Capt. Reg't 5, Brig 2 1861
1862: Tax, Hillibrand, Joseph H 160 Hester street,
retail liquor $20.
1863: Draft Registration - 160 Hester Street
Hillenbrand, Joseph age 29 -en-tor, married born New York,
belongs to 5th N. Y. S. M
Tax - Hillenbrand, Joseph listed twice, 160 Hester street,
retail liquor income ex $600, value 2030, amount of tax @0 and $60.
1865: Joseph Hellenbrandt was the Festival Marshal for the
German Saengerfest at Jones' Woods July 19, 1865
1870: Joseph Hillenbrandt was a member of the Beethoven Maennerchor of the City of
1870: Ward 12 no address, Joseph Hillebrand 36, reti merchant, $15,000 $15,000,
Elizabeth Hillebrand 33,
Joseph Hillebrand 8,
Caroline Hillebrand 5,
Henry E Hillebrand 3,
Annie Yellinger 37, servant,
Catherine Koch 21, servant
1873: Joseph Hillenbrandt was paid $2,500 in rent money
for the quarter ending August 1, 1873 AND the quarter ending November 1, 1873
for the armory at 156 to 160 Hester street.
1880: 433 E 86th street, Joseph Hillebrand 44, retired merchant,
Eliza Hillebrand 43, wife,
Joseph Hillebrand 19, clerk store,
Caroline Hillebrand 15
Henry Hillebrand 13
Christian Hillebrand 10
Catharine Hillebrand 5
Francis Hillebrand 1, son and three servants
1884: April 20,
Joseph Hillenbrand, 433 E. 86th streed paid $25 to the New York, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Records
April 4, 1897 buried Evergreen Cemetery
Probate: Will written in New York probated in Monmouth New Jersey -
pay just debts left everything else to his wife,
Kmuschka's Concert Hall - Ave A
Kmuschka's Concert Hall was mentioned in the 1860 temperance movement
New York Sabbath Committee's list
holding concerts on Sunday. It was called "Concert Hall in 1859 to 1863 and
Constitution Hall in 1864.
Carl Kmuschka was born in Nassau Germany circa 1819. He was naturalized in 1861.
Carl's first wife Henrietta Kmuschka died in
1875. Carl Kmuschka married Whilhelmina Rohde in 1876.
Carl Kmuscka and Whilhemina Rohde had a daughter
Anna born in 1879.
85 Av A
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1857
1859: Carl Kmuschka renounced the Duke of Nassau 24 August naturalization petition
1860: Kmuschka, Charles, beer, h 512 4th street, Trow's New York City Directory
1860: 18th Ward Working Mens Association rally to the Party - Land Reformers meeting
at Concert Hall 229 Avenue A between 15th and 16th streets June 13th.
1861: Naturalization, Nov 21, Carl Kmuschka -
Common Pleas, 229 Av. A, NYC no occupation, renounced the Duke of Nassau
1864: Call Constitution Hall 229 Avenue A
Kmaschka, Charles age 51, musician born Hamberg, Henrietta age 50 born Wurtenberg
1875: Death of Henrietta Kmuschuka August 4, 1875
1876: Kmuschka Charles, musician, h 123 [133?] Rivington NYC Directory
1876: Marriage, Carl Kmuschka
6 Aug 1876
Spouse: Wilhelmina Rohde
Certificate Number: 3802
1879: Child Anna born 12 March 1879 father Charles married Hirschhorn
Anna Kmuschka Hirschhorn,
[Anna Kmuschka Kmuschka] ,
Birth Date: 12 Mar 1879,
Birth Place: New York City, New York,
Father Name: Carl Kmuschka,
Mother Name: Mina Rohde,
Type of Claim: Original SSN.,
Notes: Apr 1963: Name listed as ANNA KMUSCHKA HIRSCHHORN
1880: Charles Kmuschka,
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1880
1882: Charles Kmuschka
643 E 9th
New York, New York, USA
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1882
Did not find a map with an obvious concert hall at 229 Avenue A near 16th street.
Lindenmuller - 49 Bowery
See map of the Bowery between Bayard and Canal below.
1854: In January
Mr. Lindenmuller, a German restaurant owner, was giving free dinners
to poor Germans everyday between the hours of one and two o'clock.
Tickets were issued GOOD FOR ONE DINNER at Lindemuller's Saloon 118
Chatham Street, New York.
1855: New Years Eve Ball at Lindenmullers
1855: A German gentleman named Lindenmuller, established a soup
kitchen to fight the "fierce and hungry mouths" of unemployed laborers in New York.
An article in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle
reporting on the Dead Rabbits gang riots (fights) of July 4 - 5, 1857
stated the Dear Rabbit gang "assailed the drinking saloon, No. 49 Bowery
the fixtures of which they demolished after assaulting the inmates, whom the suspected
members of another antagonistic Club, know as the "Atlantic Guards."
Dead Rabbits riots
In the Great Riots of New York Joel Tyler Headley says fighting
occurred at Nos 40 to 42 Bowery. Other news articles say the fray started at 44 Bowery.
1859: Trow's directory listed Behr and Michaels saloon at 49 Bowery. Behr,
William saloon 49 Bowery home 68 Forsyth street also listed in 1859
1859: December 19, 1859.
"DESTRUCTIVE FIRE IN THE BOWERY.; The Odeon Theatre and
Two other Bulidings Consumed - Six Buildings Partly Burned -
$25,000 Worth of Property Destroyed - Excitement and Narrow Escapes."
(N Y Times)
The Odeon Theatre and and lager-bier Saloon at 49 Bowery was the source of a
fire in which three building were entirely consumed and six others were partially
burned. Gustave Lindenmuller and another man were in the bar room when they
saw a flash of light. Upon investigation they
discovered that some artificial Christmas trees were on fire. The blaze spread rapidly
fueled by the "combustible scenery and light upholstery work". The
proprietor of a billard room on the second floor was overcome by smoke.
The man was heroically rescued by his son. Two people in the billard room lept
from the window to the street and were uninjured. The basement was occupied
by a bowling alley which
suffered a lose amounting to about $100 not covered by insurance.
By the time the firemen arrived
the blaze had spread to the third floor of the four story brick building.
Fear of the fires spread caused panic in the tenements which backed up to the building
and in the storefronts adjoining the building.
No. 47 Bowery, a three story brick to the south of no. 49, housed a lager beer saloon
and boarding house on the top three floors and a "segar" store in the basement.
At no 45 Bowery was the Volks Garden another theater and lager beer saloon. No
45 was owned by Harman, Reinhardt and Heimer.
The buildings to the north (no. 51) was destroyed
except for the walls which were left standing. The first floor of 51
housed a tobacco and cigar manufacturer.
Total estimated damage $10,000. Part of the first floor was also a barber shop.
The second floor and attic were a boarding house. No 53 was occupied by a furniture
manufacturer - it was slightly damaged mostly by water.
The tenements at 29 and 31 Christie street, at the rear of the fire, suffered water
damage to the building and damage to the furniture of the tenants. Several
people jumped to the street to escape the smoke.
They were uninjured. Some people threw their furniture out the windows.
The furniture did not fair so well. 29 Christie street suffered
damage as did a bakery on the first floor of that building.
A small wooden building at the rear of 29 Christie was also destroyed.
Tenants of the Christie street building were forced out into the bitter cold.
December 18, 1859 Bowery Odeon Saloon and Theatre run by G. Lindenmuller
was being decorated with
holiday greens when it caught fire. The insurance was not enough to
cover the cost of the fire. (The United States Insurance Gazette, and Magazine of Useful Knowledge, Volume 9)
1860: March 21 - Human remains were found while men were digging at 49 bowery
the site of the December 18,
1859 fire. It was assumed that the bones were those of a man missing since the fire.
The Managers of the Juvenile Delinquent Asylum vs Gustav Lindenmuller.
The Juvenile Delinquent Asylum obtained an injunction restraining Lindenmuller
from giving performances on Sunday in his saloon know as the Lindenmuller's Shaker Church also know as the Odeon.
1860: April 25,
Gustavus Lindenmuller keeper of a lager beer garden at 199 - 201 Bowery
was arrested for keeping open places of amusement on Sunday. Bail was set at $300.
1860: October -
It was rumored that Lindenmuller "the Lager Beer King" and
And "bowery Beer Seller" was planning to lease Steward's
"marble palace" on Broadway for twenty years and turning it into a "vast"
Billiard and Beer Saloon. Steward's was moving their store to ninth and Broadway.
1860: November Lindenmuller described as a well
known German Sabbath breaker was
indicted for flagrantly disregarding the
excise laws. He and his fellow lager beer saloon owners weere
labeled a "Sabbath-breaking, meerschaum-smoking, and
Lager beer-drinking German "Free-thinkers" by the Raleigh Christian Advocate.
1861: Lindenmuller was convicted of violating the Sunday Laws. It was stated that
"no German will probably ever yield to the law without resisting to the last."
Lindenmuller's Theatre 199 and 201 Bowery was featuring tachyhippodamia - the art of
quieting wild horses. Admission 25 cents.
1862: Lindenmuller at 199-201 Bowery opposite Spring Street
1871: Lindenmuller's Odeon
Gustavus Lindenmueller: The Myth, The Man, The Mystery
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1857
Augustus Lindenmuller 40, saloon,
Eliza Lindenmuller 20,
Gustave Lindenmuller 6,
George Lindenmuller 1,
Margt Meyer 39, servant
1903: "The rear part of an ancient and rickety three-story building at 49
Bowery" which once housed Dan Bryant's minstrels collapsed.
The third floor fell onto the second floor and from there to the first floor. At least 10 people
were injured. At the time it was the home of the Lion Paper Box Company.
The collapse was
said to be caused by
excessive weight of paper stored on the top floor.
Mager's Concert Hall - 101 -105 Elizabeth Street
Address: 101 Elizabeth
Page #: 440
1839/1840: New Year's eve
"Board of Assistant Aldermen.
Whereas, On New Year's Eve a number of dissolute
young men promenaded our streets, and after perpetrating various
infamous outrages upon peaceable citizens,
proceeded to the house No. 101 Elizabeth street,
occupied by Valentine Mager, and there violently
assaulted the inmates, and wantonly destroyed a
quantity of furniture."
On January 3 1840 the Evening Post reported that the young men
in the numerous "outrages" committed on New Year's Eve were
Around eleven o'clock the mob went to 101 Elizabeth street
"a house kept by a very respectable German" where a group of
Germans were holding a New Year's Eve Ball. The invaders
acted in a "riotous" manner, breaking dishes and furniture.
A fight ensued. Swords were raised. Shots were fired.
One of the dissolute young men, a stone cutter, was killed.
There was a coroner's inquiry at which a 19 year old
German woman testified. She was a barmaid who
lived at 101 Elizabeth and tended bar for Mr. "Major".
She stated that about 50 men marched into the bar, broke up
a table and started throwing bottles around.
Other witnesses said that there were three or four balls a
week at the hall. It was stated that some people boarded in
Watchmen and aldermen were sent for but did not arrive quickly.
Abraham Schereler, the brewer and bar keeper at 101 Elizabeth
street, testified that a large number of young men marched into
the building and started to break up the
furniture and throw bottles around. When he asked them to
calm down the called him a "damn Dutchman" and struck
him with pieces of the broken furniture and knocked him down
unconscious. He said there were two guns
in the house belonging to the landlord.
About 25 to 30 men were attending the "ball" but
none of them were in the barroom at the time of the invasion.
Valentine "Major" also testified. He stated that there was an event
for German emigrants, with not other persons being admitted.
About 11 o'clock he was in a room on the second floor near the ballroom when he heard the ruckus on the first floor. He went dow to
witness the riotous behavior of the young men, cursing, swearing, smashing things.
He pleaded with them to calm down. It obviously was cold and snowy
because there was also mention of snow balls and chunks of ice being thrown.
Valentine's wife, Philomona, was present and was struck on the side of the head and fell down.
Guns were brandished by the invaders. A scuffle followed.
Megar was dragged to the the next door.
Magar was beaten
but managed to escape back into 101 Elizabeth.
He heard some shots but did not know where
they came from. Watchmen came and took control of the house.
In their defense the rioters said the only came in for a drink -
that the Germans started hitting first. The one witness did say that many
of the young men were "excited with liquor".
The rioters continued to throw stones, brick bats and ice at the building.
The jury, after a short deliberation,
concluded that "John Armstrong was killed by the discharge of fire
arms in the hands of some person or persons unknowns on the night of
December 31, 1839 near the house of Valentine Major no 101 Elizabeth street."
Two young men from the group of rioters were held on bail of $250.
Journal and Documents of the Board of Assistants, of the City of ..., Volume 15
By New York (N.Y.). Board of Assistant Aldermen
1842: Ladies Cordwainers Society met at Mager's Concert Hall on Elizabeth Street.
1842: Valentine Mager and George C Sheridan
were charged with assault
and battery against Alderman John Steward of the 14th Ward.
Steward had gone to 101 Elizabeth street on
Sunday the 26 of June and found people playing music, and drinking.
He climbed up on a table,
informed the crowd that he was an alderman, and ordered
them to decease. Mager and Sheridan pulled him down by the coattails.
1844: A meeting of the Democratic Republican Electors of the 14th Ward was held
at Mager's concert Hall 101 Elizabeth street. Valentine Mager nominated as a charter officer.
1848: Mager's on Elizabeth Street was a polling place for the 14th Ward in 1848.
1848: White minstrels performed at Mager's concert Hall
1848: A "Grand Fancy Dress and Civic Ball" was given
at Mager's Concert Hall.
1849: January -
The boxer Tom Hyer fought an exhibition round
with his trainer George Thompson as a warm up for the "Big" fight
between Hayer and "Yankee Sullivan".
About 700 to 1,000 people attended at a dollar entrance fee.
1850: Mager's on Elizabeth Street near Grand was said to be known by its "own circle of patrons" and
"It is an immense room on the second floor, elaborately and gaudily painted in fresco, with scenes
from the Dutch mythology (at least they are not from any other) in which naked goddesses, grim knights,
terrific monsters and
American eagles are like Shelley's immortal combatants - "Feather and scale inextricably blended."
The floor, on ordinary occasions, is filled with rough tables and wooden benches, and partly
across one end runs a balconied platform by way of orchestra. Every Sunday night takes place at this
a grand German and English concert, vocal and instrumental. Several female singers, with those marvelous
guttural alternating voices resembling the compound creaking of a dry grindstone, or the cry of a
guinea-hen, are regularly engaged here, and perform in both
German and English.
The orchestra consists of a gigantic seraphina*, two violins, a flute and a fagotto, all
played by Germans, and of course played well."
The concerts were attended by "respectable" German men and women. Crowds were as large as fifteen hundred people.
The price of admission was one shilling and
included a "drink of Rhine wine or a swig of bierisch."
Large quantities of both were drank by both men and women. Near the orchestra was a large stage
were dramatic performances were given in German during the week.
On occasion the hall was rented out for balls and other events.
New York by Gas-light and Other Urban Sketches
By George G. Foster (1850)
*"The seraphine is an early keyed wind instrument, something of a cross between a reed organ and an
accordion, being more similar to the former."
1850: At a Dutch fancy dance - the Ripton Ball - at
Valentine's Mager's porter house
a fight broke out about three o'clock in the morning over a woman.
One man was stabbed in the side with a "long dark dirk".
The perpetrator fled over the roof top but was captured by police.
1850: The house of Valentine Mager caught
fire about o'clock in the morning when a gas pipe burst.
The blaze was quickly brought under control with little damage done.
1852: A demonstration in the art od self defense was given at Mager's Concert Hall.
1853: A sparring exhibition was given at Mager's Concert Hall.
1859: Valentine Mager used a barn near Jones Woods
where he housed five donkeys, a brood mare and a six month's
The barn caught fire and all of the animals burned to death.
the donkeys were used in a circus act.
The barn belonged to General Jones. Arson was suspected.
1858: By 1859 Valentine Mager was the proprietor of
the Jones's Wood Hotel at the Provoost Mansion at the
foot of E 71st street. The hotel could be reached by the
Second avenue Railroad. He owned other property in the area.
105 Elizabeth street became the Union Assembly Rooms - see below.
The National Garden - 104 Bowery (between Hester and Grand)
1870: The society for the Reformation of Juvenile
Delinquents vs Alfred "Beers". Alfred Diers was the proprietor of the
National Gardens "where lager beer is dispensed and songs sung and dances danced."
It was claimed that Diers had not paid the annual licence fee of $500.
1871: Wanted "A first class Lady vocalist (Serio Comic)
at the National Garden 104 Bowery.
1874: National Garden - 104 Bowery - Albert Dier[s] proprietor - Orchestra playing
walzes and polkas.
1878: On Sunday night November 3, 1878 a variety show was given with "comic songs, dances, gymnastic feats,
pantomime and farces". Admission was 10 cents with reserved seats 5 cents extra.
About 400 people attended including families. Beer and liquor were served. Men sat with their hats on.
There was a bar in the front of the house and 4 billiard tables were occupied.