Kleindeutschland and the Lower East Side, Manhattan - Beer Gardens, Meeting Halls and Theaters

HOME - New York City - Kleindeutschland Streets - Peter Goehle - Catherine Furst Scharzmeier Lindemann -

My Family in Kleindeutschland

My ancestors, Catherine Furst Schwartzmeier Lindemann (born Aschaffenburg, Germany 1827), her daughter, Wilhelmina Schwartzmeier Lindemann Goehle (born NYC c 1862), and Wilhelmina's husband, Peter Goehle (born Herrnsheim, Germany 1852) and their extended families lived in the Lower East Side. My grandfather, Frank Goehle, was born at 88 Sheriff Street in 1894.


Drinking Establishments

Drinking establishments in Kleindeuchland fell into three categories.

  1. Basement or celler bars which catered to the rougher elements and often offered prostitutes.

  2. A local saloon where respectable workers could go for a drink.

  3. Family places like the beer gardens where the whole family went to drink, sing and be entertained.

Some localities were frequented by workers in a given trade while were popular with natives of a given area in Germany. The beer gardens, or the rooms they contained, were meeting places for the large variety of clubs and organizations the Germans belonged to. Many Beer Gardens grew into a conglomerate containing meeting halls, ballrooms, bowling allies, club rooms, bars and more.


Beer Gardens

The beer garden was an important part of German America life. People worked 6 days a week and it was in the beer gardens that the entire family congregated on Saturday afternoons and Sunday evenings to eat, socialize, sing and drink beer. There were numerous of these establishments throughout the German American neighborhoods in the New York Metropolitan area - Jersey City, Hoboken, Brooklyn and lower Manhattan. Some were very large and could accommodate up to 1,000 people. Music, smoking and beer drinking were the most important components of the beer garden, but many also had other types of entertainment. Everyone, "even the baby is sure to be treated to a modicum of the ruddy malt." [The Illustrated London News, Dec 3, 1864]

German Americans were very family oriented. Germans parents rarely went out without their children. Entertainment, diversions and holidays were for the whole family.

"In 1853 one of the popular summer gardens on the Bowery was the Vauxhall, just opposite Peter Cooper institute on Forth ave. Opened in 1806 the stars of its first bill were Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Allan Poe, parents of the poet, whose performance, according to the contemporary reviews, "showed not too much talent". Later the Vauxhall became the headquarters for P. T. Barnum's curio and variety show - forerunner of vaudeville. About the same time (1852) Edward P. Christy, famous minstrel man, opened White's Varieties at No 17 Bowery. Garden theaters and concert saloons, as they were called, continued to multiply along the street. Among the more famous was the Atlantic Garden at 50 Bowery, where German plays, "Orchestrion" concerts and solo singers drew family groups for years. Other such places of entertainment were the Liberty (later the National) Garden at 104 Bowery, the Pacific Garden at No. 54 and the Theater Garden at No. 78. Most of them seated over a thousand persons."

The Evening Independent Massillon, Ohio 17 August 1948

Some Beer Gardens in 1859

The New York Sabbath Committee, a temperance group very much opposed to Sunday beer drinking, listed several theaters and their performances of dramatic entertainment, comedies, singing, ballet band and orchestra music (both "classical" and newly composted), as an example of the corruption of the Sabbath by the beer halls. They claimed the list of examples of the entertainment was the "most just and impressive method of bringing the evil in question to the knowledge of the reader." The theaters listed were: New York Stadt Theatre, 37-19 Bowery - Kmuschka's Concert Hall, Ave A (With Serious and Comical Duetts, and Solos, and Band Music) - Constanzer Brewery, 565-576 4th street - Buson's [Busam's] Fortuna Hall, 220 Second Street - Harmony Gardens, 139-145 Essex street - Central Hall of Social Reformer, 28 Grand Street - Eustachi's Volk Theater, 4th street - Tulp's Thalian Hall, Ave A - Germania Hall, 42 Ave A - Metropolitan Hotel. Strauss was a popular component of the entertainment.


Halls and Assembly Rooms

Lower East Side German societies of various types (singing, shooting, gymnastic) held annual meetings, dinners, and balls. Occupational organizations also held annual meetings, dinners and balls. In addition, they often held rallies to discuss workers rights issues. There were also numerous political meetings. Veterans of the wars (War of 1812, Civil War) held anniversary events. Holidays such as Carnival, July 4th, Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Years Eve were celebrated with balls. The Lower East Side was studded with Gardens, Halls and Assembly Rooms large enough to accommodate the crowds who attended these events. A look at a few of these establishments gives some idea of the diversity of uses and events among the Germans of the Lower East side between the 1850's to 1900.


Some of the More Popular or Famous Beer Gardens - Meeting Halls


Atlantic Gardens

See below


Beethoven Maennerchor - 210-214 E. Fifth Street

1870: The Beethoven Maennerchor inaugurated a new club House on Fifth street. In celebration the gathered at their old headquarters on 6th street and had a coral performance. They then marched in a procession in a circuitous route through the neighborhood to the new hall. The society was composted of about 300 member of whom 100 were active.

In 1874 The Beethoven Maennerchor gave a children's festival on Christmas evening at its hall on 5th street. There was an illuminated Christmas tree and the children received gifts.

"The Beethoven Maennerchor is one of the oldest singing societies of New-York, and one of the few that have had a continuous life of more than thirty years. It was founded in 1859 by eight young German-Americans, who had the love for the German song as ardently on this side of the Atlantic as in their boyhood days in the Fatherland."

March 17, 1895 - New York Times

New York Times

1895: In December the Beethoven Maennerchor celebrated the 25th anniversary of the the dedication of its Hall and clubhouse at 210-14 Fifth Street.

1903: The Beethoven Maennerchor sold it property known as Beethoven Hall a four story building at 210 East Fifth Street on a 50 x 96.2 feet plot.
1911 map NYPL digital collection


Buson's [Busan's] Fortuna Hall - 220 Second Street

1854: Francis (Franz) Busam was the owner of the Busam's Fortuna Hall in 1855. When he was naturalized in 1854 in the court of Common Pleas, he gave his address as 260 Second Street and he renounced the Grand Duke of Baden.

1855: "The Germans of the Eleventh Ward met last evening, at Fortuna Hall, Second-street, and ratified the Mechanics' Hall ticket."

1855: A New Years Eve ball was held at Busam's Fortuna Hall

1857: Francis Busam, 220 Second, Occupation: Brewer, Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1857

1858: Second street near ave B - "Bussom's" Fortuna Hall a meeting of the Democrats of the 11th and 7th wards - November.

1861: The Zweibrueckeners had a Thanksgiving festival at Busam's Fortuna Hall "where a rare array of national dishes loaded the board."

1861: October 20 - A German Union meeting was held in the Eleventh Ward, at BUSAM's Hall, No. 220 Second-street (NY Times)

1860 - 1862 or thereabouts : "Busom's Fortuna Hall, 220 Second Street. Sunday, December 11. Great and Extraordinary entertainments by the family Fahn, in the afternoon, 3 o'clock. Dramatic, Humorous Singing Comical Duetts, Dances, etc. in the evening, at 7 o' clock Vaudevilles, Operetta and Farces with songs. Grotesque and Modern Ballet Dancing Entrance Free"

1866: A meeting to ratify the proceedings of the Philadelphia convention was held at Busam's Fortuna Hall Second street, August.

1866: A large Union supporting 12th District political rally was held in Busam's Hall on Second street. September 1.

1866: Excise tax - Busam Francis 220 2nd street, Ret Liquor tax $10

1867: Franz Busam 220 Second Residence Place: New York City, New York, USA Occupation: Saloon Publication Title: Trow's New York City Directory, 1867-68

1867: Francis Busam 220 Second New York City, New York, USA Publication Title: Wilson's Business Directory of New York City, for 1867-68 No occupation listed.

1868: A Thanksgiving Ball was given by the Columbia Scheutzen Corp at Fortuna Hall

1869: Franz Busam, age 49, died May 4, 1869 #33049 Manhattan. Henrietta Goedel Busam, wife, was the designated executor of the estate of Francis Busam who wrote his will February 2, 1864 age 45. He left his personal estate and two lots in ground in Union Hill, Bergen county, New Jersey and potentially an estate from relatives in Germany. He signed the will Franz Busam. They do not appear to have had children. When she died in November 1904 she left her estate to Greenwood Cemetery and two nieces - the daughters of a brother or brothers.

1869: December a meeting of the German Citizen's Association was held at Busam's Hall in Ave B.

1873: Meetings were held in September at Fortuna Hall

1875: Henrietta Busam age 51 was living in Brooklyn.

1880: Henrietta Busam 23 Yates av Brooklyn, New York, USA widow of Francis Busam Publication Title: Brooklyn, New York, City Directory, 1880

1903: The Emanu-El Brotherhood of the Lower East Side held services for a time around 1903 at the Volk's Lyceum at 220 E 2nd Street near Avenue B. (American Jewish History By Jeffrey S. Gurock)

1906: The City Record listed Emanuel Brotherhood at 220 E 2nd street.


Map circa 1868 NY Public Library digital collection

This section of the map shows 2nd and 3rd streets at Avenue B. 220 E 2nd street is indicated with the arrow. Red building are of brick. Yellow of wood. Green indicates a commercial or other enterprise that may be dangerous for some reason - usually a fire related hazard - perhaps a bakery. White indicates open space. The Fortuna Hall building takes up almost the entirety of two large lots. There is only the smallest open space at the left middle.


Concordia Hall - 20 to 30 Avenue A (East Side between 2nd and 3rd streets) - The building still stands

Concordia Hall on Avenue A was a popular place for political rallies and motivational speeches. The building that housed Concordia Hall dates to 1871. I have only included a few of the numerous listing in the papers from 1871 on.

In 1874 Otto Ahrendt was the keeper of Concordia Hall. He was still there in 1877. However by 1880 Hugo Kladivko was running Concordia Hall. Ahrendt was still in the business - he had a restaurant and Tropical Winter Garden at 102 and 104 West 47ht street in 1883.

1871: The German American Teachers association met in Concordia Hall Avenue A in October.

1871: Surviving members of the 20th Regiment of New York Volunteers held an anniversary festival in Concordia Hall 28 Ave A in commemoration of the battle of Antietam fought Sept 17, 1863 in which 41 regiment members were killed and 142 wounded.

1873: A meeting of the Association of German House-owners and tax payers of the 10, 11 and 17th wards was held at Concordia Hall in September to devise a method to deal with the overcrowding in the ward school.

1873: December 8th - The Rhinish Scuetzenbund gave its 2nd annual ball at Concordia Hall.

1874: In 1874 Otto Ahrendt, the proprietor of Concordia Hall at nos 28 and 30 Ave A, was held for $1,300 bail, for infractions of the Sunday laws. Charges were brought by the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents.

1874: The Scandalia Quartet club, a singing society, was at Concordia Hall in Avenue B in January 1874, despite the Sunday Laws.

1875: Otto Ahrendt was restrained from having performances at Concordia Hall without a licence.

1877: Otto Ahrendt was the proprietor of the Concordia Assembly rooms.

1877: In October and November cigar makers on strike met at Concordia Hall.

1878: The annual ball of the Separate Troop Calvary took place in Concordia Hall in January 1878.

1878: On Sunday evening November 3 the Concordia Hall on Avenue "B" sponsored two events: A ball for about 300 young people for 35 cents admission upstairs, A variety show downstairs of 10 censt 10 cents admission. Beer was served and the mostly German crowd was orderly.

1879: Separate Troop A Calvary held it annual ball at Concordia Hall 28 Ave A.

1880:

"Company B, Eleventh Regiment, Capt. Freitag commanding, will have its annual ball at Concordia Hall, No. 28 Avenue A, to-morrow evening."

New York Times, January 11, 1880

1881: Concordia Hall on Ave A was the head quarters of the Republican party for the District.

1880: The Peter Albers Association ball was held in Concordia Hall a German resort kept by Hugo Kladivko in Avenue A near Second Street.

1880: October 15, Naturalization of Hugo Kladivko restauranteur 14 Avenue A, denounced the Emperor of Austria.

1880:

The German and Hungarian musicians of this city are going to have a "gay and festive" time on the 9th of this month. Hugo Kladioko who formerly kept the Hotel Liszt, on Fourteenth Street, next to Steinway Hall, has moved over to Avenue A, and though that neighborhood is one of the most unfashionable in the city, to put it mildly, his friends have not deserted him. Concordia Hall is part of his establishment, and there he is going to give an "artist's" ball. The committee comprise Rafael Josefiy, Max Vogrich, August Wilhelmj, Ad. Neuendorf, Dr. Damrosch. Edouard Remenyi, Rudolf Bial and other well known musicians. Fraulein Geistinger, Cottrelly, and Jaunischowsky will be among the guests, and Mr. Kladioko is making great preparations for the reduction of various national dishes to be washed down with lager beer and Hungarian wines. Every ticket entitles the holder to a carriage to and from the ball. If there will not be a good time at that ball, I am no judge. With two such leading spirits as Wilhelmj and Remenyi at the helm look out for fun.

Musical Record and Review, Issues 105-156

1881: An artist ball was given in Concordia Hall in February. The proprietor was Hugo Kladivko. The establishment had a superior dancing floor, excellent dressing room and a large gallery. It was beautifully decorated.

1882: In April the Republican Association of the 10 Assembly District met at Concordia Hall Avenue A. "A resolution was passed approving the veto of the Anti-Chinese bill." Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

1884: February 17 and 26, Cigar workers on strike held meetings at concordia Hall.

1885: Listed at Avenue A between 2nd and 3rd streets when the Cigar Makers Protective Union held a ball there in March.

1888: In support of the brewers strike the metal workers and food producers associations met at Concordia Hall.

1889: Real Property for sale at auction

"The most important was of "Concordia Hall," Nos. 28 and 30 Avenue A. It was offered under foreclosure to satisfy a third mortgage on which over $35,500 is due and bids were taken over the first and second mortgages which aggregate $50,000. The first bid was $1,000 over said mortgages and the last $24,500, or a total of $74,500. The name of R. S. Newcomb was given as the purchaser, but the real buyer is Moritz Bauer, defendant in the foreclosure proceedings.

Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide, Volume 44

1891: Speeches were given at Concordia Hall in October 1891.

1895: Germany American political meeting held at Concordia Hall 28 to 30 Avenue A.

1896: Large numbers of citizens of the Lower East side met at Concordia Hall to protest the passage of the Raines liquor bill.

1899: Otto Ahrendt was arrested and taken to the Jefferson Market court where the judge protested that he did not understand why the police spent so much time and energy prosecuting excise violations when there were so many worse crimes being committed. Otto Ahrend had a licence to run a hotel but not to serve beer and have music. The judge said that any decent hotel would serve beer and have entertainment.

1899: In 1899 it was proposed to convert the Concordia Hall into a court house. At that time it was described:

"The large room is fairly lighted, at the easterly end, by windows opening on the yards of the adjacent lots, and at each easterly corner by windows opening on light shafts; on the Avenue A end the light is ample. There are two ventilators in the ceiling. So long as the adjacent lots remain as they now are, the light and ventilation will be sufficient, but, this being an interior lot, the possibility of adjacent owners building up to rear lines of their property ought to be considered. This being a tenement district, it is not probable that such buildings will be erected, but the possibility should be provided for, if a long lease is itentered into."

Proceedings By New York (N.Y.). Sinking Fund Commissioners


Map circa 1868 NY Public Library digital collection

This section of the map shows Avenue A between 2nd and 3rd streets. 28 - 30 Avenue A is indicated with the arrow. Red building are of brick. Yellow of wood. Green indicates a commercial or other enterprise that may be dangerous for some reason - usually a fire related hazard - perhaps a bakery. White indicates open space. The hall takes up all of the available space in the double wide lot. The footprint of the building is the same today.


NY Public Library digital collection

Avenue A between 2nd and 3rd East Side 1933. Concordia Hall is the building with the spire and the long street sign.

Otto Ahrendt

Otto Ahrendt was the proprietor of the Concordia Beer Garden in 1874.

1870: Ward 17, 1st between 1st and second ave., Shrendt, Otto age 29, LB Saloon born Germany, Rosa age 20

1870: Otto Ahrent was listed twice in 1870. Ward 17, Ahrendt, Otto age 29 Beer Saloon $1,000 born Berlin, Rosa age 20 born Wurtenberg, Schmit, Mary age 20 , servant

1872: Otto Ahrendt 43 First Occupation: Beer Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1872

1877: Otto Ahrendt 30 Av A New York, New York, USA Occupation: Beer Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1877

1880: According to his 1880 passport Otto Ahrendt, age 38, born Berlin, May 12 1841 a naturalized citizen of the United States, was five feet six inches tall with blue eyes and light blond hair

1880: Otto and Rose went to Germany and returned on the Westphalia, 15 September 1880, occupation merchant, Cabin Class, from Hamburg to New York, five pieces of luggage

1883: By 1883 Otto Ahrendt had a restaurant and Tropical Winter Garden at 102 and 104 West 47th street.

1885: Otto Ahrendt was keeping a concert saloon at 102 and 104 West 47th street when one of his waiters was arrested for breaking the Sunday excises law.

1891: No 219 E 76th street n. s. 230 e 3rd Ave, 25x102.2 four story brick tenement ; John H. Boeseenecker to Otto Ahrendt and Rosa his wife, $18,000

1896: Mr. Otto Ahrendt 5 Feb 1896 Age: 51, merchant, U S citizen, Native country, Germany, to New York, cabin class, Port of Departure: Rotterdam Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Amsterdam

1900: 8th avenue near West 25th street, Otto Ahrendt 59, hotel keeper, immigrated 1856, Rosa Ahrendt 50, 1 child 1 living, Ottera Ahrendt 7, adopted daughter, Mary Granzow 27, mother of adopted daughter, Guiseppo Aristohle 38, bartender

1915: Queens Otto Ahrendt 74, Mary Ahrendt 43

1920: Wycoff Ave, Brooklyn, Otto Ahrendt 78, born Berlin, retail merchant candy, Mary Abrendt 48, wife

See Raines Law and

From Singing to Sofas: The History of the Burger-Klein Building for a history of the building.


Constanzer Brewery - 565-576 4th street

Carl J. "Diem's" Thaeter und concert Salon (AKA Carl "Deim's" Loewen-Halle) 301 Houston Street (1858) (Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840-1940 By John Koegel, 2009)

On August 17, 1858 the day they New York celebrated the success of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, Alumni of the German University of Jena celebrated the Third Centennial Anniversary of the founding of the institution at the Constanzer Brauerei on 4th street. Many German university graduates attended as well as a number of Americans. "The celebration was kept up in regular German Students' style till a late hour in the morning." (The New York Times)

During the Civil War between 1861 and 1864 there was a shortage of small denomination coins. Tokens worth about a penny were privately minted to be used in lieu of government coins. Undertakers, saloon owners, butchers, beer hall owners and others minted their own tokens. The token pictured here was issued by Carl Diem of the Constanzer Brewery at 565 & 567 4th street.

Carl Diem, born 1826, was listed with his wife Louise age 54 and son Gus age 20, in the 1880 census in New York as a Lager Bier Saloon Owner address West 38th street, born in Wurtemberg.

He was also listed in 1870 age 45, with as a lager bier saloon - value of real estate $15,000 and value of personal property $1,000. He died in New York in 1901 at 323 West 38th street. At the time he was survived by his wife, Louise, his son, and two grandchildren, Paul Arnold Dantel son of his daughter Bertha Louise, and George Karl Diem, son of his son Gust Adolf Diem. He owned the property at 323 and 325 West 38th street.

1857: Carl J Diem 801 Houston New York, Occupation: Liquors

565 4th street was at or near Avenue D.

Civil War Tokens


Eagle Hall - Chrystie and Delancey

1850: October 1860 - Major T. D Smith of the Governor's Guard was the proprietor of Eagle Hall corner Delancey and Christie streets and Military Hall 193 Bowery. In 1850 Military Hall was the oldest and most well established "military rendezvous", for company drills, elections and meetings. Major Smith had just recently finished Eagle Hall which had the largest drill room in the city. The room was also used for balls. He had also refurbished Military Hall. He had "embellished" the bar room covered the floors with "splendid oil cloth". Many military companies held their annual balls at Military Hall.

1851: Swedenborgism - a lecture and debate will take place at Eagle Hall, Delancey street near the Bowery, New York on Sunday afternoon on Swedenborgism and Spiritual Knockings. (Swedenborg (1688-1772) founded a religion in which he believed that the spirit left and body and roamed around during sleep. Hence dreams. Spiritual Knockings were conversations between the living and the dead and were a basic principal of Swedenborgism.)

1853: In December 1853 a funeral for a child was held at 158 Delancey street.

1856: Eagle Hall at Chrystie and Delancey became a Turn Hall.

1857: The Eleventh Regiment rented the Eagle Hall as a Armory.

1858: "Military - To Let from first of May the large drill room 65 feet square with committee rooms attached at Eagle Hall corner Chrystie and Delancey st. in quite at 163 Bowery, from 11 to 1 o'clock or 7 to 8 in the evening."

1858: The Schllerbund Singing Society gave its first public performance in Eagle Hall in 1858.

1861: The Eleventh Regiment Washington Rifles, N. Y. S. M leased the two upper floors of the of Eagle Hall , corner of Delancey and Chrystie Streets, for five years, at a rent no higher than $1,250 per year.

1869: July 25, "The anniversary of the battle of Idstedt during the Schleswig-Holstein war was celebrated by the Sclewsig-Holstein Association at Eagle Hall corner of Delancey and Chrystie streets." On July 25, 1850 the Battle of Idstedt ended the first Schleswig War a military conflict between northern Germany and souther Denmark. 27.000 Schleswig-Holstein troops fought 40,00 Danish soldiers. The Germans did not win the battle outright but gained some concessions form the Danes. The celebration started at 5:00 P. M. the July 25th anniversary. Speeches were given commemorating the battle and the dead. Songs were sung. A general social entertainment followed. The event was attended by both men and "ladies". Many of the men who participated had fought in the battle.

Schleswig-Holstein was under Danish rule from 1846 to 1864.

1869: Armories corner Delancey and Chrystie

1871: October Eagle Hall corner Chrystie and Delancey street was used by the Turnverein a for the Turn School.

1871: Occupied Armories rooms corner Delancy and Chrystie streets (11th Regiment) rent $4,000.

1872: A meeting of the Officers of the 11th Regiment met at the "armory" at the corner of Chrystie and Delancey.

1873: The committee on Armories and Drill-rooms put forth a motion to move the 11th Regiment from its headquarters on Delancey street to Nos 37 and 39 Bowery.

1873: The barkeeper at 26 Delancy, "Nellson Hall", was summoned as a witness in the court martial of of Sergt. Hauser on the 11th Regiment on chartes of mutiny and conduct "prejudicial to good order."

By 1893 The University Settlement was renting a "house" at 26 Delancey street.


Map circa 1868 NYPL digital

This map is a bit disorienting. Delancey actually runs East West and Chrystie tuns North South. The large building shown in greed is the Eagle Hall. It was on the north east corner of Delancey and Chrystie.

In 1924 the corner of Chrystie and Delancey was described thus:

Beginning at a point on the Northeast corner of Chrystie Street and Delancey Street; running thence Northerly along the Easterly side of Chrystie Street 100 feet; thence Easterly parallel with the Northerly side of Delancey Street 100 feet; thence Southerly parallel with the Easterly side of Chrystie Street 100 feet to the Northerly side 113 of Delancey Street; thence Westerly along the Northerly side of Delancey Street 100 feet to the point or place of beginning. Said premises being known as Nos. 20, 22, 24 and 26 Delancey Street and 154, 156 and 158 Chrystie Street.

Germania Assembly Rooms - 42 Avenue A

Established 1859 (Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840-1940 By John Koegel)

George W. Sauer ran the Germania Hall for a number of years. He was a Civil War veteran.

1868:

The sum of twenty-five hundred dollars is hereby appropriated to be paid out of the treasury of the State, to Major George W. Sauer, in settlement of damages sustained by him upon account of loss of horses, and other expenses, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-one, in equipping and perfecting a detachment of the third regiment cavalry, National Guard, State of New York, and the Comptroller is hereby directed to draw his warrant upon the Treasurer for the payment to . Major George W. Sauer, of said sum of twenty-five hundred dollars.

Laws of the State of New York, Volume 2 By New York (State)

1868: The Hairdressers Association gave a Thanksgiving Ball at the Germania Hall in 1868.

1869: Germania Hall 42 Avenue A

1874: In December 1874 Troupe H of the Third Regiment Calvary had its annual ball at the Germania Assembly Rooms. It was well attended by its member and by the National Guard.

1874: Major Sauer of the Germania Halls met with the police Commissioner to discuss the Sunday Blue laws. The rent for the Germania Assembly Rooms at 291-293 the Bowery in 1874 was $25,500 per year. George W Sauer was the proprietor.

1874: On Christmas Day the Saengerrunde (a German volcal group) had a drawing for gifts followed by a ball at the Germania Assembly Rooms.

1876: "Major George W. Sauer", of the Third Regiment Cavalry, celebrated his twenty-fifth anniversary as a member of the National Guard by a ball at Germania Assembly Rooms in October

1877: 2,700 liquore dealers in Manhattan had complied with the law and obtained liquor licenses in 1877. Complaints were leveled against the Police Department for harassing dealers who had filed their applications and paid their money but not yet received renewals because of the paperwork stress at the Excise board. In August Major George W Sauer represented the German Liquor Dealers Association. He was indignant that the government of a "free" county could dictate what a person could eat and drink and when he could eat or drink it.

"It is only here in "Free" America that we see an insolent, overbearing Police dragging innocent citizens and tax-payers to jail because an obsolete law, worthy of the dark ages, has been dragged from olbivion by a legal dicision."
In December Major George W. Saner [Sauer] stated that the whole issue of liquor licenses had been arbitrarily and unjustly dealt with.

1877: George W Sauer was a member of the Committee of Arrangements who were meeting in May 1887 to adopt resolutions favoring the repeal of the Excise law.

1878: The Germania Assembly Halls was "brilliantly lighted" when the Manhattan Turn society held their first ball of the season in November 1878.

1880: The 1880 census listed on First street, Geo. W. Sauer 51, liquor dealer, Louisa Sauer 43, wife, Emelia Sauer 18 Rose Sauer 15 Tilly Sauer 14 Lottie Sauer 8 Mary Sauer 3 Gertie Sauer 1 Gustav Rubel 29, son in law, musician, Minnie Rubel 19, daughter

1905: George W. Sauer died March 8, 1905. His obits indicated that Major George W Sauer was with the Third Regiment Calvary. He was active in the German singing society celebrations. In the 1890 he had a place called Atlantic Casino, on 8th ave at 155th street. In 1899 he was blind and owned the Klondike Hotel at 59th street and Broadway where he lived with his wife and unmarried daughter when a fire broke out. He was born September 1, 1827 and died March 8, 1905.

1906: Fred Bollmer committed suicide in his saloon at 42 Avenue A by attaching a tube to the gas jet and putting it in his mouth. He left a note saying he was tired of living and wanted to join his brother, Jacob, who had died. Fred and Jacob had been partners in a saloon at 15th and Avenue A. The article stated that Jacob's wife and child died in the General Slocum disaster and a few months later Jacob committed suicide.

Note: Mary Vollmer, age 36, and her children, Joseph age 16, Auguste age 9 and Magdalena age 7 all died in the Slocum on June 15, 1904. Joseph "Vollmer", age 36 committed suicide June 17, 1905, a year after the Slocum. See General Slocum disaster


NY Public Library map circa 1868

The footprint of the Germania Assembly rooms is much smaller that Busam's or Concordia. Still it covers every available inch of the lot leaving no yard or open space at all. The church at the right is the Most Holy Redeemer, 173 3rd street, a Catholic church built in 1851. German Catholics were numerous in Kleindeutchland.


Harmony Gardens (Harmonia Hall) - 139-145 Essex street

Harmonia Hall AKA Harmony Garden had several owners over the years. In 1870 it belonged to the partnership of Henry Goering and George Eckels. By 1885 it was owned by Christian Supps.

1859: 145 Essex street was listed as a slaughterhouse belonging to Mr. Henry Hyde when a fire broke out in January of that year.

1859: At the 9th annual festival of the New York Turnvereins on Whit Monday in June of 1859 Germans turned out to march to Elm Park. Different groups gathered at different places to begin the march. The numerous Glee Clubs started from Harmony Gardens on Essex street at 8 o'clock in the morning. They marched though Grand Street, Bowery, up Broadway and down Canal to Spring street where boats awaited them. At least 6,000 people gathered to celebrate in Elm Park.

1860: April - There was a meeting in a large hall at Harmony Gardens on Essex street of about 400 German cabinetmakers and piano makers in an effort to keep prices up and express solidarity with striking shoemakers in Lynn.

1860: October - The New York Turnverein gave a performance of singing, dancing and gymnastics to benefit the German Free School.

1861: Civil War recruits from the United States Vanguard were quartered at Harmony Gardens.

1861: Harmonia "Garten" held a Thanksgiving ball.

1862: June 25, Meeting of honorably discharged Union soldiers to petition the government for the payment of a $100 bounty promised at enlistment was held at Harmony Garndes on esses street.

1863: Christmas night there was a ball at Harmony Gardens on Essex street.

1868: The Kunitz Light Guard gave a Thanksgiving Day ball in Harmony Graden in Essex street.

1870: The partnership of the proprietors of the Harmony Ballrooms and Restaurant at 139, 141, 143 and 145 Essex street was disolved by mutual consent. Henry Goering was responsible for all debts. George Eckels and Henry Goering.

1870: George Eckels and Henry Goering were both listed at 143 Essex street in the 1870 census. "Gering", Henry age -0 [30?], ret lig dealer, Anna M age 20, and Eckels, George age 30 ret lig dealer, Charles 10 and Lilly age 7

In 1865 George Eckels had an eating house and a ret lig dealership at 13 Rivington in partnership with Peter Watteru[?]

1872: Henry Goering 145 Essex Occupation: Beer Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1872

1872: About 150 German bakers met at Harmonia Hall at 145 Essex street to organize a strike for a 10 hour workday and a 50 cent increase in wages. They had been working 12 to 16 hours a day.

1872: June, wheelwrights and blacksmiths met at Harmonia Hall 145 Essex street to call for a general strike. The previous day wood turners, saw miller, engineers planers, and moulding makers had met at 145 Essex street for a similar purpose.

1873: Henry Goering, 143 145 Essex, Publication Title: GouldingĀ“s Business Directory of New York, 1873-74

1873: In July 1873 Harmony Gardens maintained a low profile on Sunday evenings. The front door was closed and the shade were pulled down. There was a fair crowd of customers but they kept the laughter and other noise down.

1874: In 1874 George Eckels was a member of a committee of German saloon-keepers who met with the police commissioner in reference to the recent order for suppression of the Sunday theaters. At that time he was listed "of the Beethoven Maennerchor Hall" 1874: A Masquerade ball was given at Harmony Gardens in Essex street in January 1874. Permission was given by the police in spite of the Sunday laws.

1876/1877: Henry Goering, 145 Essex Occupation: Beer Publication Title: GouldingĀ“s New York City Directory for 1876-77

1880: Henry Goering 143 Essex Occupation: Beer Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1880

1880: List of registered voters in the 8th assembly district Lawrence Lang and Christian Supp at 145 Essex street.

1883: L. Lang was the proprietor and Christian Supp the manager of Harmony Rooms 139 and 146 Esses street when they opened Ocean House in Rockaway Beach - a hotel and iron pier with the best accommodations for picnics and parties.

1885: January 30, The Sangerlust Society had a ball at Supps' Harmony Rooms a 139-145 Essex street. Price Carnival was inaugurated. There was drinking, dancing and singing and pretty blond German girls in costumes.

1885: November Christian Supp proprietor of a beer shop on the first floor at 145 Essex street under the Harmony Rooms applied for a renewal of his excise licence. His lawyer produced a diagram of the property showing that Supp's place was not connected to the Harmony Rooms and stated that no performances were given in the rooms. The Judge wanted to inspect the property before granting the licence. An argument was made that the Judge had granted a licence to the Metropolitan Hotel without inspecting it. Weren't the rights of a poor man equal to a rich hotel keeper? Action was delayed.

1885: November Christian Supp obtained a excise license for the bar at Harmony Hall nos. 141 to 145 Essex street by agreeing to put a false door over a vestibule door leading from the hallway to the assembly rooms.

1883: November 13, Christian Supp was the proprietor of the lager beer saloon at 145 Essex street known as Harmony Hall. Mr Supps' request for a liquor licence renewal was turned down. It was stated that the saloon was on the ground floor of no 145 and was separate from the hall on the second floors of 139, 141, and 143 Essex street - that the hall was used for meeting and not for "theatrical exhibitions" and there was no connection between the two establishments. The commissioners visited the locality and found a door between the saloon and the hallway that led to the meeting rooms. It was agreed that if the door was permanently closed a license could be issued. 1888: Annual reception of the Peter Braun Association at Harmonia Rooms 139-145 Essex street December 16

145 Essex street is between Rivington and Stanton.


NYPL digital collection c 1868

Harmonia Hall was at Nos. 139, 141 and 143 Essex street.

Henry Goering

1870: 143 Essex Street, Gering", Henry age -0 [30?], ret lig dealer, Anna M age 20

1873: Naturalized April 1873, Henry Goering, saloon keeper, 139 Essex, common pleas court

1873: Passport application. Born Bavaria August 15, 1843 5 feet 6 inches, dark brown eyes dark brown hair., naturalized April 1873, common pleas court

1880: Goering H age 38, Marie wife, age 41, 173 Essex Street, saloon, born Bavaria

Christian Supp

1878: Christian Supp, Street address: 178 Essex, Occupation: Waiter, Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1878

1880: 145 Essex Street, Christ Supp 39, proprietor of the Harmony Restaurant and Brewery, born Wurtenburg, Josephine Supp 30, born New York, Annie Burkart 42, sister in law

1883: Christian Supp, 143 Essex, Occupation: Beer, Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1883

1892: Christian Supp Birth Date: 30 Oct 1841 Death Date: 22 Aug 1892 Cemetery: Old Saint Raymonds Cemetery Burial or Cremation Place: Bronx, Bronx County, New York, USA (Find a Grave)

Josephine born March 25, 1849 died Feb 5 1895

1893: Probate for Christian Supp, October 20, Ward 23, left everything to his wife, Josephine.

1895: Probate of Josephine Supp - widow of Christian Supp - to the Church of the Immaculate Conception of 151st street, New York $1,000 for masses for the repose of the soul of Christian Supp and herself - $100 to father John Deuges of the Immaculate conception - to her sister Eliza Lutz widow $50 - to Caroline Supp wife of Henry Supp $50 - to her nephew Henry Burckhardt son of Baltasar and Eva $200 - to her nephew and niece William Burchardt and Louisa Meyer children of Baltazar and Eva in trust $500 - - the remainder of the estate to to William and Louisa


Hillenbrands (Metropolitan Rooms) 156-170 Hester street

1850: In April The Confectioners Benefit Society held its first meeting at Hillenbrand's Hall on Hester street. The group was princely made up of German bakers.

The German locksmiths also held a preliminary meeting at Hillenbrand's in April.

another meeting held at Hillenbrand's was composed of iron and metal workers including blacksmiths, tin smiths, locksmiths, coppersmiths, and others.

1851: 11th Ward polling place Hillenbrand's 170 Hester.

1853:

Sugar bakers met at Hillenbrand's Hall, 160 Hester street in April 1853. The were seeking an increase in wages from as little as 87 cents and a much as a dollar a day to a larger wage of $1.25 for a 10 hour day for all sugar bakers. A sugar baker or sugar refiner worked in a sugar refinery and processed the raw sugar into white granular sugar. Sugar bakers suffered for a form of eczema called sugar baker's itch.

1855: Mechanic's Hall - 160 Hester Street.

1856: June 24 - About 40 Frenchmen met to commemorate the Parish insurrection of June 1848 and the Bread Riots. "French songs sung - German lager bier drank - and American cigars smoked." A good time was had and the party lasted until late.

1859: January 14 - A gathering of the "Red Republicans of all nations" met at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester street to celebrated Orsini's assault on Louis Napoleon. Speakers addressed the gathering in five languages. Orsini

1859: In 1859 the Schillerbund society celebrated the one-hundredth birthday of the German poet, Fredrich Schiller, with a concert on Nov 10 in the Metropolitan Rooms in Hester Street.

1860: Feb 17 - Master bakers met at 160 Hester met to devise some "mode of protecting their interests against the enterpriser of Mr. Hecker, who by the aid of large capital and machinery sells larger loaves of bread that it is possible for them to do at the same price."

1860: February 24 Liquor Dealers Association met at the Metropolitan Rooms Hester Street.

1860: March 6, Liquor Dealers Society met at 160 Hester street.

1862: The Teutonia Maennerchor a singing group met at Hillerbrandt's Metropolitan Rooms for their annual festival. About 600 people attended and were entertained by vocal and instrumental music and a ball in the "elegantly decorated saloons".

1862: March - The Germania Sing Verein held a ball at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester Street where "masking and mumming*" were the "order of the day". It was one of the most "good-humored, jollity" of the season. Almost the entire crowd was in masquerade. The refreshment rooms and the dancing hall were brilliantly lit. The dancing hall was lighted with several massive chandeliers, with illuminated globes "yielding more tone and color than bare, staring gaslights could." The rooms were festively decorated with both American and German colors. An excellent band played, waltzes, polkas and reels. Around midnight a burlesque was given.

*Mummers were originally bands of masked persons who during winter festivals in Europe paraded the streets and entered houses to dance or play dice in silence. (britannica.com)

1864: The Musical Mutual Protection Union met at the Metropolitan Rooms 156- 160 Hester street. Musical Mutual Protection Union

1869: Company B of the 5th Regiment national Guard held target practice and summer's nights festivals. The convened at the 5th Regiment armory on Hester street, marched for several blocks, then took cars to Hamilton Park.

1869: June - Auction foreclosure - 158 160 Hester street - entire furnishings, fixtures, in the lunch, billiard, meeting and lodging house - bar, counter, shelving, mirrors, "splendid" billard tables, balls and cues, chairs, benches, round and square tables, glassware, crockery, clocks, engravings, knives and forks, desks, icebox, two large kitchen ranges, copper boilers, Brussels carpets, etc.

1869: September - Irish Fenians met at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester street.

1870: Milk dealers association met at 160 Hester street in August.

1871 and 1872: The 5th Regiment National Guard met over Hillenbrand's lager beer saloon at 156-160 Hester Street. Rent was $2,500 per quarter.

1871: Meeting of the Irish exiles of the 14th ward was held in august.Z

1872: 5th Regiment at 156, 158, and 160 Hester street in fair condition with a leaky roof.

1872: The Societa D'Italiani Cittadini de Nuova York met at the Metropolitan Rooms on Hester street in September.

1872 - 1877: John Lammer was listed at 160 Hester, (beer, liquor, and no occupation)

1880: The milk dealers union met at 160 Hester to establish prices for milk for the winter. Retail prices were 6 8 and 10 cents a quart. The lower price milk containing a larger percent of water to milk.

1881: McGlory's Armory Hall 156, 158 and 160 Hester street near the Bowery throughly overhauled - one of the best dancing and variety halls in the city - best dancing, best music. Admission free. Jewish Ball every Sunday evening.

1887: Armory Hall Vaudeville Theatre 158 to 160 Hester Street All Star Novelty Company Every Night.

1887: December Armory Hall Vaudville Theatre the finest company in America. Hughes, and Clark, Frankie De Forrest and Southern Serenaders under management of Billy Speed.

1888: June - "Billy McGlory's notorious dive, Armory Hall at 258 and 160 Hester street" was closed by the Board of Health and condemned as unfit for human habitation. Sanitary inspectors had been through the building several times in the preceding months and had ordered that it be repaired, cleaned and disinfected. The Armory had formerly been the home of the 5th Regiment until they were mustered out in 1880.

"Billy McGlory secured it and under his proprietorship it obtained a reputation as a dive where the wildest and most immoral orgies were committed. Billy was sent to prison from it, but opened again on his release." (The Evening World June 8, 1888)

Billy McGlory was a saloon keeper and underworld figure. See Billy McGlory

1889: Thomas C Smith sold 156, 158 and 160 Hester street, with the four-story brick building thereon known as " Armory Hall".... He sold other properties at the same time. Real Estate Guide - NY times - four story brick building and two three story brick buildings with a plot of land, 134.3 by 99.2 by 133.11 by 100 - 156 to 160 Hester street southwest corner by 108 to 110 Mott.

1900: Valuable Property for Auction March 27, 1900, 156, 158 and 160 Hester - 7 story and basement - brick, stone and iron building with large plot of land - also 108 and 180 1/2 Mott street.

Joseph Hillenbrand[t]

1834: March 1 birth

1861: New York National Guards

  • 2nd Lt Reg't 3 birg 2 1857
  • 1st Lt Reg't 3 Brig. 1 1859
  • Capt. Reg't 5, Brig 2 1861

1862: Joseph Hillenbrandt was the Captain of Company E 5th (Light Infantry) Militia, Jefferson Guard

1862: Tax, Hillibrand, Joseph H 160 Hester street, retail liquor $20.

1863: Draft Registration - 160 Hester Street Hillenbrand, Joseph age 29 -en-tor, married born New York, belongs to 5th N. Y. S. M

1864: Tax - Hillenbrand, Joseph listed twice, 160 Hester street, retail liquor income ex $600, value 2030, amount of tax @0 and $60.

1865: Joseph Hellenbrandt was the Festival Marshal for the German Saengerfest at Jones' Woods July 19, 1865

1870: Joseph Hillenbrandt was a member of the Beethoven Maennerchor of the City of New York.

1870: Ward 12 no address, Joseph Hillebrand 36, reti merchant, $15,000 $15,000, Elizabeth Hillebrand 33, Joseph Hillebrand 8, Caroline Hillebrand 5, Henry E Hillebrand 3, Annie Yellinger 37, servant, Catherine Koch 21, servant

1873: Joseph Hillenbrandt was paid $2,500 in rent money for the quarter ending August 1, 1873 AND the quarter ending November 1, 1873 for the armory at 156 to 160 Hester street.

1880: 433 E 86th street, Joseph Hillebrand 44, retired merchant, Eliza Hillebrand 43, wife, Joseph Hillebrand 19, clerk store, Caroline Hillebrand 15 Henry Hillebrand 13 Christian Hillebrand 10 Catharine Hillebrand 5 Francis Hillebrand 1, son and three servants

1884: April 20, Joseph Hillenbrand, 433 E. 86th streed paid $25 to the New York, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Records

1887: Death April 4, 1897 buried Evergreen Cemetery

Probate: Will written in New York probated in Monmouth New Jersey - pay just debts left everything else to his wife, Elizabeth.


Kmuschka's Concert Hall - Ave A

Kmuschka's Concert Hall was mentioned in the 1860 temperance movement New York Sabbath Committee's list of venues holding concerts on Sunday. It was called "Concert Hall in 1859 to 1863 and Constitution Hall in 1864.

Carl Kmuschka was born in Nassau Germany circa 1819. He was naturalized in 1861. Carl's first wife Henrietta Kmuschka died in 1875. Carl Kmuschka married Whilhelmina Rohde in 1876. Carl Kmuscka and Whilhemina Rohde had a daughter Anna born in 1879.

1857: Charles Kmuschka 85 Av A Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1857

1859: Carl Kmuschka renounced the Duke of Nassau 24 August naturalization petition common pleas.

1860: Kmuschka, Charles, beer, h 512 4th street, Trow's New York City Directory

1860: 18th Ward Working Mens Association rally to the Party - Land Reformers meeting at Concert Hall 229 Avenue A between 15th and 16th streets June 13th.

1861: Naturalization, Nov 21, Carl Kmuschka - Common Pleas, 229 Av. A, NYC no occupation, renounced the Duke of Nassau

1864: Call Constitution Hall 229 Avenue A

1870: Kmaschka, Charles age 51, musician born Hamberg, Henrietta age 50 born Wurtenberg

1875: Death of Henrietta Kmuschuka August 4, 1875

1876: Kmuschka Charles, musician, h 123 [133?] Rivington NYC Directory

1876: Marriage, Carl Kmuschka 6 Aug 1876 Manhattan, Spouse: Wilhelmina Rohde Certificate Number: 3802

1879: Child Anna born 12 March 1879 father Charles married Hirschhorn

Anna Kmuschka Hirschhorn, [Anna Kmuschka Kmuschka] , SSN: 507605168, Birth Date: 12 Mar 1879, Birth Place: New York City, New York, Father Name: Carl Kmuschka, Mother Name: Mina Rohde, Type of Claim: Original SSN., Notes: Apr 1963: Name listed as ANNA KMUSCHKA HIRSCHHORN
1880: Charles Kmuschka, 146 Ludlow, New York, Occupation: Teacher, Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1880

1882: Charles Kmuschka 643 E 9th New York, New York, USA Occupation: Musician Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1882

Did not find a map with an obvious concert hall at 229 Avenue A near 16th street.


Lindenmuller - 49 Bowery

1854: In January Mr. Lindenmuller, a German restaurant owner, was giving free dinners to poor Germans everyday between the hours of one and two o'clock. Tickets were issued GOOD FOR ONE DINNER at Lindemuller's Saloon 118 Chatham Street, New York.

1855: New Years Eve Ball at Lindenmullers

1855: A German gentleman named Lindenmuller, established a soup kitchen to fight the "fierce and hungry mouths" of unemployed laborers in New York.

1857: An article in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle reporting on the Dead Rabbits gang riots (fights) of July 4 - 5, 1857 stated the Dear Rabbit gang "assailed the drinking saloon, No. 49 Bowery the fixtures of which they demolished after assaulting the inmates, whom the suspected of being members of another antagonistic Club, know as the "Atlantic Guards."

Dead Rabbits riots

In the Great Riots of New York Joel Tyler Headley says fighting occurred at Nos 40 to 42 Bowery. Other news articles say the fray started at 44 Bowery.

1859: Trow's directory listed Behr and Michaels saloon at 49 Bowery. Behr, William saloon 49 Bowery home 68 Forsyth street also listed in 1859 Trow's.

1859: December 19, 1859.

"DESTRUCTIVE FIRE IN THE BOWERY.; The Odeon Theatre and Two other Bulidings Consumed - Six Buildings Partly Burned - $25,000 Worth of Property Destroyed - Excitement and Narrow Escapes." (N Y Times)
The Odeon Theatre and and lager-bier Saloon at 49 Bowery was the source of a fire in which three building were entirely consumed and six others were partially burned. Gustave Lindenmuller and another man were in the bar room when they saw a flash of light. Upon investigation they discovered that some artificial Christmas trees were on fire. The blaze spread rapidly fueled by the "combustible scenery and light upholstery work". The proprietor of a billard room on the second floor was overcome by smoke. The man was heroically rescued by his son. Two people in the billard room lept from the window to the street and were uninjured. The basement was occupied by a bowling alley which suffered a lose amounting to about $100 not covered by insurance. By the time the firemen arrived the blaze had spread to the third floor of the four story brick building. Fear of the fires spread caused panic in the tenements which backed up to the building and in the storefronts adjoining the building. No. 47 Bowery, a three story brick to the south of no. 49, housed a lager beer saloon and boarding house on the top three floors and a "segar" store in the basement. At no 45 Bowery was the Volks Garden another theater and lager beer saloon. No 45 was owned by Harman, Reinhardt and Heimer. The buildings to the north (no. 51) was destroyed except for the walls which were left standing. The first floor of 51 housed a tobacco and cigar manufacturer. Total estimated damage $10,000. Part of the first floor was also a barber shop. The second floor and attic were a boarding house. No 53 was occupied by a furniture manufacturer - it was slightly damaged mostly by water. The tenements at 29 and 31 Christie street, at the rear of the fire, suffered water damage to the building and damage to the furniture of the tenants. Several people jumped to the street to escape the smoke. They were uninjured. Some people threw their furniture out the windows. The furniture did not fair so well. 29 Christie street suffered damage as did a bakery on the first floor of that building. A small wooden building at the rear of 29 Christie was also destroyed. Tenants of the Christie street building were forced out into the bitter cold.

December 18, 1859 Bowery Odeon Saloon and Theatre run by G. Lindenmuller was being decorated with holiday greens when it caught fire. The insurance was not enough to cover the cost of the fire. (The United States Insurance Gazette, and Magazine of Useful Knowledge, Volume 9)

1860: March 21 - Human remains were found while men were digging at 49 bowery the site of the December 18, 1859 fire. It was assumed that the bones were those of a man missing since the fire.

1860: The Managers of the Juvenile Delinquent Asylum vs Gustav Lindenmuller. The Juvenile Delinquent Asylum obtained an injunction restraining Lindenmuller from giving performances on Sunday in his saloon know as the Lindenmuller's Shaker Church also know as the Odeon.

1860: April 25, Gustavus Lindenmuller keeper of a lager beer garden at 199 - 201 Bowery was arrested for keeping open places of amusement on Sunday. Bail was set at $300.

1860: October - It was rumored that Lindenmuller "the Lager Beer King" and And "bowery Beer Seller" was planning to lease Steward's "marble palace" on Broadway for twenty years and turning it into a "vast" Billiard and Beer Saloon. Steward's was moving their store to ninth and Broadway.

1860: November Lindenmuller described as a well known German Sabbath breaker was indicted for flagrantly disregarding the excise laws. He and his fellow lager beer saloon owners weere labeled a "Sabbath-breaking, meerschaum-smoking, and Lager beer-drinking German "Free-thinkers" by the Raleigh Christian Advocate.

1861: Lindenmuller was convicted of violating the Sunday Laws. It was stated that "no German will probably ever yield to the law without resisting to the last."

1862:

Lindenmuller's Theatre 199 and 201 Bowery was featuring tachyhippodamia - the art of quieting wild horses. Admission 25 cents.

1862: Lindenmuller at 199-201 Bowery opposite Spring Street

1871: Lindenmuller's Odeon

Gustavus Lindenmueller: The Myth, The Man, The Mystery 1857: Gustavus Lindenmuller 15 William New York, Occupation: Saloon Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1857

1860: Augustus Lindenmuller 40, saloon, Eliza Lindenmuller 20, Gustave Lindenmuller 6, George Lindenmuller 1, Margt Meyer 39, servant

1903: "The rear part of an ancient and rickety three-story building at 49 Bowery" which once housed Dan Bryant's minstrels collapsed. The third floor fell onto the second floor and from there to the first floor. At least 10 people were injured. At the time it was the home of the Lion Paper Box Company. The collapse was said to be caused by excessive weight of paper stored on the top floor.

See map of the Bowery between Bayard and Canal below.

Mager's Concert Hall - 101 -105 Elizabeth Street

1839-40: Valentine Mager Occupation: Boardinghouse Address: 101 Elizabeth Page #: 440

1839/1840: New Year's eve

"Board of Assistant Aldermen. Whereas, On New Year's Eve a number of dissolute young men promenaded our streets, and after perpetrating various infamous outrages upon peaceable citizens, proceeded to the house No. 101 Elizabeth street, occupied by Valentine Mager, and there violently assaulted the inmates, and wantonly destroyed a quantity of furniture."

Journal and Documents of the Board of Assistants, of the City of ..., Volume 15 By New York (N.Y.). Board of Assistant Aldermen

On January 3 1840 the Evening Post reported that the young men involved in the numerous "outrages" committed on New Year's Eve were predominantly volunteer firemen. Around eleven o'clock the mob went to 101 Elizabeth street "a house kept by a very respectable German" where a group of Germans were holding a New Year's Eve Ball. The invaders acted in a "riotous" manner, breaking dishes and furniture. A fight ensued. Swords were raised. Shots were fired. One of the dissolute young men, a stone cutter, was killed. There was a coroner's inquiry at which a 19 year old German woman testified. She was a barmaid who lived at 101 Elizabeth and tended bar for Mr. "Major". She stated that about 50 men marched into the bar, broke up a table and started throwing bottles around. Other witnesses said that there were three or four balls a week at the hall. It was stated that some people boarded in the building. Watchmen and aldermen were sent for but did not arrive quickly. Abraham Schereler, the brewer and bar keeper at 101 Elizabeth street, testified that a large number of young men marched into the building and started to break up the furniture and throw bottles around. When he asked them to calm down the called him a "damn Dutchman" and struck him with pieces of the broken furniture and knocked him down unconscious. He said there were two guns in the house belonging to the landlord. About 25 to 30 men were attending the "ball" but none of them were in the barroom at the time of the invasion. Valentine "Major" also testified. He stated that there was an event for German emigrants, with not other persons being admitted. About 11 o'clock he was in a room on the second floor near the ballroom when he heard the ruckus on the first floor. He went dow to witness the riotous behavior of the young men, cursing, swearing, smashing things. He pleaded with them to calm down. It obviously was cold and snowy because there was also mention of snow balls and chunks of ice being thrown. Valentine's wife, Philomona, was present and was struck on the side of the head and fell down. Guns were brandished by the invaders. A scuffle followed. Megar was dragged to the the next door. Magar was beaten but managed to escape back into 101 Elizabeth. He heard some shots but did not know where they came from. Watchmen came and took control of the house. In their defense the rioters said the only came in for a drink - that the Germans started hitting first. The one witness did say that many of the young men were "excited with liquor". The rioters continued to throw stones, brick bats and ice at the building. The jury, after a short deliberation, concluded that "John Armstrong was killed by the discharge of fire arms in the hands of some person or persons unknowns on the night of December 31, 1839 near the house of Valentine Major no 101 Elizabeth street." Two young men from the group of rioters were held on bail of $250.

1842: Ladies Cordwainers Society met at Mager's Concert Hall on Elizabeth Street.

1842: Valentine Mager and George C Sheridan were charged with assault and battery against Alderman John Steward of the 14th Ward. Steward had gone to 101 Elizabeth street on Sunday the 26 of June and found people playing music, and drinking. He climbed up on a table, informed the crowd that he was an alderman, and ordered them to decease. Mager and Sheridan pulled him down by the coattails.

1844: A meeting of the Democratic Republican Electors of the 14th Ward was held at Mager's concert Hall 101 Elizabeth street. Valentine Mager nominated as a charter officer.

1848: Mager's on Elizabeth Street was a polling place for the 14th Ward in 1848.

1848: White minstrels performed at Mager's concert Hall

1848: A "Grand Fancy Dress and Civic Ball" was given at Mager's Concert Hall.

1849: January - The boxer Tom Hyer fought an exhibition round with his trainer George Thompson as a warm up for the "Big" fight between Hayer and "Yankee Sullivan". About 700 to 1,000 people attended at a dollar entrance fee. Tom Hyer

1850: Mager's on Elizabeth Street near Grand was said to be known by its "own circle of patrons" and the police.

"It is an immense room on the second floor, elaborately and gaudily painted in fresco, with scenes from the Dutch mythology (at least they are not from any other) in which naked goddesses, grim knights, terrific monsters and American eagles are like Shelley's immortal combatants - "Feather and scale inextricably blended." The floor, on ordinary occasions, is filled with rough tables and wooden benches, and partly across one end runs a balconied platform by way of orchestra. Every Sunday night takes place at this establishment a grand German and English concert, vocal and instrumental. Several female singers, with those marvelous guttural alternating voices resembling the compound creaking of a dry grindstone, or the cry of a guinea-hen, are regularly engaged here, and perform in both German and English. The orchestra consists of a gigantic seraphina*, two violins, a flute and a fagotto, all played by Germans, and of course played well."

New York by Gas-light and Other Urban Sketches By George G. Foster (1850)

The concerts were attended by "respectable" German men and women. Crowds were as large as fifteen hundred people. The price of admission was one shilling and included a "drink of Rhine wine or a swig of bierisch." Large quantities of both were drank by both men and women. Near the orchestra was a large stage were dramatic performances were given in German during the week. On occasion the hall was rented out for balls and other events.

*"The seraphine is an early keyed wind instrument, something of a cross between a reed organ and an accordion, being more similar to the former."

1850: At a Dutch fancy dance - the Ripton Ball - at Valentine's Mager's porter house a fight broke out about three o'clock in the morning over a woman. One man was stabbed in the side with a "long dark dirk". The perpetrator fled over the roof top but was captured by police.

1850: The house of Valentine Mager caught fire about o'clock in the morning when a gas pipe burst. The blaze was quickly brought under control with little damage done.

1852: A demonstration in the art od self defense was given at Mager's Concert Hall.

1853: A sparring exhibition was given at Mager's Concert Hall.

1859: Valentine Mager used a barn near Jones Woods where he housed five donkeys, a brood mare and a six month's old colt. The barn caught fire and all of the animals burned to death. the donkeys were used in a circus act. The barn belonged to General Jones. Arson was suspected.

1858: By 1859 Valentine Mager was the proprietor of the Jones's Wood Hotel at the Provoost Mansion at the foot of E 71st street. The hotel could be reached by the Second avenue Railroad. He owned other property in the area.

Jones's Woods

105 Elizabeth street became the Union Assembly Rooms - see below.


The National Garden - 104 Bowery (between Hester and Grand)

1870: The society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents vs Alfred "Beers". Alfred Diers was the proprietor of the National Gardens "where lager beer is dispensed and songs sung and dances danced." It was claimed that Diers had not paid the annual licence fee of $500.

1871: Wanted "A first class Lady vocalist (Serio Comic) at the National Garden 104 Bowery.

1874: National Garden - 104 Bowery - Albert Dier[s] proprietor - Orchestra playing walzes and polkas.

1878: On Sunday night November 3, 1878 a variety show was given with "comic songs, dances, gymnastic feats, pantomime and farces". Admission was 10 cents with reserved seats 5 cents extra. About 400 people attended including families. Beer and liquor were served. Men sat with their hats on. There was a bar in the front of the house and 4 billiard tables were occupied.

NYPL digital map circa 1862 NYPL digital map 1899

104 Bowery highlighted with arrow.


Niblo's Garden - 582 Broadway (near Prince) - and the Metropolitan Hotel

Niblo's Garden was founded in 1834 by William Niblo who was born in Ireland in 1789. The first Garden was distorted by fire in 1849. It was reopened in 1849. It burned again in 1872. Again it was rebuilt. It was connected to the Metropolitan Hotel which opened in 1852. The Metropolitan hotel managed by the Leland brothers, offered steam heat, bathrooms with running water, elevators and fine dining.

William Niblo died in 1878 aged 89 of paralysis. He left a considerable estate of $300,000. Half was left to friends and family member and half to the New York YMCA.

The theater and the hotel were torn down in 1895.

Niblo's initial enterprise was a coffee house that sold ice-cream, sherry cobblers and other liquors.

In their heyday Niblo's Garden and the Metropolitan Hotel were considered very upscale. Admission the Garden was higher than most Gardens which supposedly meant it catered to a higher class of cliental and discouraged the riff raff. All the famous actors and entertainers of the time played there.

The Metropolitan Hotel entertained important functionaries and several presidents of the United Stares. A dinner in honor of General William Henry Harrison was held at Niblo's in 1836. Harrison was campaigning for president at the time. He became the 9th president of the United Sates in 1841 and the first to die in office - just 32 days after he had taken his oath.

The Crown Prince of Japan, Tateish Onojero, stayed in the Metropolitan in June 1860.

Mary Todd Lincoln stayed at the hotel on several occasions.

Samuel Clemens stayed at the Metropolitan Hotel in the late 1860 and early 1870s.

The Metropolitan Hotel was a favorite on Tammany boss William M Tweed. When he was indicted in 1871 he was under house arrest at the Metropolitan Hotel. At the time his son, Richard Tweed, was the manager.

In 1871 the Traveler's Guide to the City of New York listed the Metropolitan Hold 582 Broadway $4.50 per nigh including meals suites extra.

In 1879 the Appleton's Dictionary of New York and Its Vicinity listed the Metropolitan Hotel cor. Broadway and Prince with a fine restaurant where ala carte meals could be had during the day and from 5 to 7 a table d'hote or fixed price meal of 8 to 9 courses and wine could be had for $1. One of the best and cheapest meals in town.

1885: November - A door from the hallway of Niblo's Garden lead directly into the ballroom of the Metropolitan Hotel. On November 17, 1885 the door was unlocked in defiance of the Excise Commission. The open door allowed patrons of the Garden to freely access the bar, restaurant, lunch room, oyster bar, and cigar stand of the hotel without having to go out onto the street. James M Otter, the manager of the Metropolitan Hotel, was testing the jurisdiction of the Excise Commission to refuse him a licence because he facilitated such easy access between the Gardens and the hotel.

Edward [Edwin] Grandville "Ned" Gilmore

Edward [Edwin] Gilmore was born in circa 1839 in Monson, Massachusetts about 15 miles from Springfield. He came to New York a poor young man of 15 years. His first job was in the Metropolitan Hotel as an assistant bartender. He subsequently had a cafe next to the Hofffman House on Broadway. From about 1876 to 1878 he was involved in Gilmore Garden which was later the site of the Old Madison Square Garden at Madison square Madison avenue and 26th street. At one point he went into politics and for four years he was Superintendent of Streets for the city of New York. He also developed a taste for the theater and theater people. He was manager for several important celebraties of the era.

"Ned" Gilmore was a man of "popular manners". He was the manager of Niblo's from 1878 to 1895.

In 1885 he married Jessie L Schwerdt, the daughter of a well known portrait painter. Gilmore claimed to have made $75,000 a year when he ran Gilmore Gardens "up to the latter part of 1877". At his death he was co-owner of the Academy of Music for which he and his partner had paid $365,000.

From 1876 to 1877 Ned Gilmore was involved with the Gilmore Gardens. Several sources say he held the lease for the Gardens. Other sources give that credit to Patrick Gilmore, a band leader and no relation to Ned Gilmore. In any event, it was one of the most popular musical venues in the city. The Gilmore Gardens was an open air arena that held: flower shows, beauty contest, temperance and revival meetings, walking marathons, dog shows, ice shows, tenis matches, horse riding exhibitions, boxing matches, tests of strength, etc. Ned Gilmore said he introduced Offenback at the Gilmore Garden.

After winning a bet on the Yale game on November 25 1887 he and some friends went to the bar in the Metropolitan Hotel. There he got into a fight with a bartender in the wine room. Gilmore ended up being thrown into the marble bar and opening a hugh gash in his forehead. Some of his gray hair was town out and his face was covered with scratches and bruises. The lobe of his left ear and his right hand had been badly bitten. Little was said about the cause of the fight. There may have been drinking involved.

In 1879

The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children sought, in October last, to obtain possession of a child called " Little Bob," who was engaged in performing acrobatic feats in the company of William M. Davene, at the Niblo's Garden Theatre." (New York Times)
Edward G Gilmore and the doorman of the Theater, John Smith, were charged with being guilty of contempt in preventing the execution of a warrant for the arrest of the acrobatic troop. Gilmore was sentenced to 30 days in jail and a $250 fine. Smith was fined $250. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children suggested the imprisonment would be remitted if Gilmore "expressed contrition for the offense". Gilmore refused, claiming that he had sworn he had not been in contempt and if he changed his story it would amount to perjury. The case was appealed. In 1882 it was ruled that Gilmore and Smith were justified in not allowing the officers of the Society into the theater unannounced in the middle of the production when a large number of people were on the stage.

In 1882 Ned Gilmore was ridiculed in the paper for "decrying the drunkenness" of a certain playwright. "When Gilmore begins to talk temperance it is time the devil put on a suit of sables and begaan to preach salvation".

In 1887 Edward G. Gilmore sued Emille Charlotte Langtry the "Jersey Lilly" for $10,00 for breach of contract.

When Mary Swart Gilbert died in 1884 she left her considerable property including a house, on 39th street, horses, carriages, money and jewelry to her adopted son, William, then age 12. The estate was valued at $25,000. If William died before age 21 the estate was to pass to Edward G Gilmore, manager of the Niblo Theater who was also the executor of the estate and the ward of William. Relatives, including Mrs. Gilbert's brother, immediately contested the will stating that Mary Gilbert was of unsound mind and under undue pressure from Edward Gilmore. In 1892 William, age 19, still a ward of Edward Gilmore, petitioned to have Gilmore removed as his guardian. At that time the estate was said to be worth $50,000. Accounts showed that Gilmore had realized $23,170.52 from the estate. He had paid out $7,421.75 for expenses for board, tuition, and incidental charges for William Gilbert at the Mount Pleasant Military Academy at Sing Sing, New York. Another account in 1892 said Gilmore had sold the Gilbert house for $33,000 subject to a mortgage of $22,000. He received $22,000 from the estate. He also sold, furniture horses carriages diamond rings and other jewelry furs and laces for about $8,000. He still retain some other valuables worth about $2,500. William had graduated form the Academy in June 1887 and did one year post graduate work. He claimed he was cruelly and inhumanly treated by Gilmore who had not provided the support stipulated in Mary Gilbert's will. He stated that after his graduation he was place in a common boarding house costing $7 a week. He was later told he would have to find a cheaper place. He was given $1 a week for expenses. After 1888 Mr. Gilmore rufused to support him at all and found him a job at the Customs House as a messenger. In June 1891 ill health forced him to resign. Gilmore claimed that the "boy" had fallen into the hands of "sharpers". He claimed that William was not Mary Gilbert's son. He further claimed that the "adopted" mother did own a house but it was heavily mortgaged and estate only amounted to $12,000 most of which went to William's education. He said William owed him everything. Witnesses, among them some of Mrs. Gilbert's servants, testified that Mrs. Gilbert always called William her son. It was noted that Edward Gilmore had "figured" in many litigations including a case brought by Mr. Bull [Ball] a door keeper at Madison Square Garden who claimed that Gilmore had assaulted him when Gilmore tried to enter without a ticket.

1891: The pugilistic proclivities of Edward G Gilmore again got him in trouble this time for assaulting M. H. Grossman an employee of the law firm of Levy, Friend and House, the firm handeling the case of John C. Bull. Mr. Grossman was attempting to serve Gilmore with a summons. Whereupon Gilmore attacked him.

In 1892 Edward G Gilmore was found guilty of contempt of court for failing to pay his taxes. Gilmore did not appear in court.

Edward G Gilmore was a gambling man and placed large bets on horses, elections and sports games. Some of his bets were as high as $5,000. He was also said to be a notorious practical joker. Although, none of his "jokes" sound at all funny.

In 1899 he was called "the theater man and racetrack patron."

Edward [Edwin] G . Gilmore died in November 5 1908 of peritonitis at his home at 78 Irving Place. His funeral was private.


NYPL digital collection - also The Successful American, Volume 7, Part 1 - Volume 8, Part 1 - Edward Granville Gilmore

Patrick S. Gilmore was an Irish immigrant born in 1829 died in 1892. He was influential in establishing the concert band concept in America. He was hired by P. T. Barnum to promote Jenny Lind's tour in 1851. He served in the Civil War in the Massachusetts 24th Regiment. Under the pseudonym, Louis Lambert, he published the famous Civil War song, When Johnny Comes Marching Home. The melody was based on an Irish folk tune. In 1875 Patrick S. Gilmore leased P. T. Barnum's Hippodrome and renamed it Gilmore Garden. More credit of the time goes to Patrick S. Gilmore rather than Ned Gilmore as the moving force behind Gilmore Garden.

Interestingly, neither Gilmore seems to have gotten into trouble with the temperance movement. Why was this? A class difference? Pay offs to the police or other officials?

See

Kleindeuchland Theaters

Niblo's Garden

The Bowery Boys: Niblo's Garden

The Lost Hoffman House Hotel -- Broadway and 25th Street


NYPL map undated

There is tons on the internet of the Metropolitan Hotel, Niblo's Garden, the Leland brothers etc.


Pacific Garden - 54 Bowery

A 1857 to 1862 map shows the Pacific Garden next to the Atlantic Garden on the Bowery in the block between Canal and Bayard streets. See Atlantic Garden below.

In July 1870 the popular German entertainment place know as Pacific Garden at 54 Bowery was for sale with lease and fixtures.

In the summer of 1873 Pacific Garden kept a low profile, as did almost all of the Lager Beer Halls in Kleindeutchland. The font door was closed and the shades drawn, but inside men women and children sat quietly at the tabels drinking their lager and listening to the music.

In 1874 Mr. "Seitz" was the proprietor of the Pacific Garden.

In January 1874 at the regular performances the woman wore full length evening gowns instead of the "usual costumes". The proprietor, Mr. "Seltz", was assured by the police that the performances would be allowed unter those circumstances.

In April 1874 the Pacific Gardens sold for $46,750 to R. V. Harrett of the Citizen's Saving Bank.

In April 1874 the Pacific Garden 54 and 54½ Bowery 25x 125 was leased for 4 years from May 1, 1874 at $4,200 per year.

In August 1875 the Excise commissioners heard complaints against Frederick Bernbock proprietor of the Pacific Garden and William Kramer of the Atlantic Garden.

On June Sundays in 1876 three were few customers at the the Atlantic and Pacific Gardens and they reportedly only served weiss wine and cider on a Sunday afternoon. The owners were trying to decide what course to pursue. Other beer gardens around the city were ignoring the law and serving lager.

In November 1876 the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents applied to a judge to issue as restraining order against performances at the Pacific Theater.

In 1878 the Pacific Garden in the Bowery did not charge and admission fee. A concert was given and "the visitors were all men, and the waiters were all women, who served liquors and beer and importuned men to buy."

In 1879 a complaint was received against the Pacific Garden at 54 Bowery for non enforcement of the Excise law where detectives found 30 women waitresses dispensing lager beer on a Sunday. The barkeep and the waitresses were arrested.

In July 1879 John Eidlong was a prominent brewer and a chemist and the owner of the Pacific Garden on the Bowery.

Mr. Eidlong was brought to court for selling a bottle of Pilsner weiss beer to a police office on a Sunday. The beer, in reality, was lager beer the sale of which was forbidden on Sunday. Eidlong was held for trial and posted $100 for his bail.

1880: See map below.


Stadt Theater - 37 39 Bowery (also 45 Bowery)

1874: A grand sacred concert was held in the Statdt Theater in 1874 which was under the management of Mr. Rubino.

See

Kleindeuchland Theaters

See map below.

Bowery Amphitheatre - Stadt Theater


Tivoli Garden, 19 St. Mark's Place

1860: no address, Paul Falk 30, confectioner, $2,000, born Prussia, Augusta Falk 22, Annie Falk 1

1870: Broadway between Huston and Bleecker, Paul Falk age 38, concert saloon keeper, born Germany, Augusta 36, Anna 13, Pauline 8 Henry 3 a maid and bartender.

In January 1872 Paul Falk was advertising a Saturday Matinee featuring the Vienna Ladies Orchestra in concert at 658 [?] Broadway between Great Jones and 4th Streets admission 25 cents.

In January 1872 there was a warrant for Paul Falk proprietor of Oriental at no 626 Broadway for keeping a disorderly house.

In April 1872 Paul Falk owner got a permit to remodel a 50 by 74 one story brick gymnasium at no 20 St. Mark's place into a concert hall.

In August 1872 Paul Falk of 20 St. Mark's Place was listed as a member of New York Lodge I B P O F

In October 1872 Paul Falk proprietor of Tivoli Garden was arrested twice in one week and brought to the Essex Street Police station on complaint Captain Edward Walsh* of the 17th precinct and of members of the Methodist Church on 7th street. He was charged with violation of the Excise Law. The subpoenaed witnesses from the Methodist church failed to appear and Falk was discharged for want of proof.

In July 1873 Paul Falk was refused a license to sell lager beer which was deemed an intoxicating liquor.

In 1874 Paul "Faulk" was the proprietor of the Tivoli Garden at 19 St. Mark's Place near 2nd avenue. There was singing, dancing, ladies in costume and dog acts to entertain the customers.

In February 1874 Paul Kalk was arrested on a complaint of the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents for holding theatrical performances without a licence. He was release on $150 bail.

In June 1874 Paul Falk of Tivoli Garden St Mark's place was arraigned at the Essex street Police Station along with nine of his employees 5 men and 4 women. The women who were "found on the stage" were kept for "examination". The three women appeared in court on June 25 for a hearing of the case. The courtroom was packed with Germans of "all classes". The case was adjourned until July 9.

In June 1874 Paul Falk of the Tivoli Garden was held on $1,000 bail. He was arrested on charges of disturbing the peace and having a musical performance on a Sunday night. The complaint was made by members of a church situated directly behind his establishment. He had already been arrested a number of times. The Sabbatarian Committee was "Desirous of stopping all music in saloon and other places of common resort on Sunday evenings". Falk posted bail and was release. In August 1874 the "notorious" Paul Falk was again arrested for violation of the Sunday laws. He was already under indictment for similar charges preferred by the Sabbatarian Committee who are determine to stop his Sunday performances "as they interfere with Divine worship in the Seventh Street Church, which immediately adjoins the rear of Falk's Garden.

On December 14th 1874 Paul "Falk" closed his place in compliance with the Sunday Laws.

On December 17 1874 Paul Falk of Tivoli Garden St. Mark's place was yet again arrested for violating the Sunday laws. He posted $500 bail and was released.

On the 23 of December 1874 Paul Falk was indicted for violation of the Sunday laws. He pleaded guilty, apologized to the court and paid a fined $250 but was not sentenced to imprisonment. He was described as "an active, bald, rosy-faced little man."

1875: Paul Falk 20 St. Mark's Pl, New York, Occupation: Theatre

In January 1875 Paul Falk was again arrested for having performances on Sunday evening and selling liquor without a license. He was release on $1,000 bail.

In 1875 "Prince Leo the wee acrobat", aka Frederick Berger, was a performer at the Tivoli Garden. He was a child said to be 8 years old, but looking to be 6 years old. Prince Leo, a slight delicate boy, was said to perform wonderful tight-rope acts to the "mingled astonishment and indignation of the audience". He had performed for three Saturdays when he was "rescued" by by members of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. His act sound like standard tight rope stunts but much was made in the paper of of Loe's trembling hesitation while performing the stunts. Officers sitting in the audience interrupted the act mid way and jumped on the stage to arrest the Prince's guardian, one Walter Leonard (a assumed name). A lawyer from the the Society of Prevention of Cruelty to Children oversaw the testimony in a case seeking to take Leo away form his gardian Walter Leonard. The court room was crowded with members of the Society of the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, the troupe from the Tivoli Garden and people who were in the audience at the Tivoli Garden when Walter Leonard was arrested and wee Leo rescued. Leo's father a "brawny looking German" from Philadelphia was also in the court room. Leonard took the child as a indenture until age 15 and taught the boy to perform on a tight rope. Leonard got $30 a week for the child's performance.

A waiter from the Tivoli said he had seen Leopard push the boy. Another waiter said he saw Leonard pull the boys's ear. Several witness stated that Leo look nervous when he walked across the tight rope which was 8 to 10 feet above the stage and that there was no netting under him although two men walked at his side. Encouraged by there success the Society of the Prevention of Cruelty to Children attempted rescues of several other child entertainers across the county.

Peter Falk a well known lager beer proprietor died January 12, 1879. He died at his residence at St. Mark's Place. He was born in Breslau Germany about 1830 and came to New York in 1853. He was an agent for German journal The Reform In 1853 he opened a shooting gallery in the Bowery in the old Volk Garden. He then moved on to making confectionaries at which endeavor he made a lot of money. In 1859 he opened the Broadway Garden which featured "pretty waiter girls". On Sunday evening musical concerts were given and over the next four years he made he made enormous profits. He had several other establishments around the city. These localities were "elegantly frescoed and finished in rare woods". He had a profitable establishment at the Lion Park Belvedere from 1855. Despite much success he went bankrupt after a few years. By 1872 he had reestablished himself and had half a dozen places including the Tivoli Garden in St. Mark's Place. He he ran into trouble with the law for operating without a licence, serving lager beer on Sunday and and giving variety performances on Sunday. Not long before his death he gave up on the Tivoli garden and moved to an old theater on the Bowery which he renamed the Volks Garden. He also got in trouble with the law at the Volk's Garden. Over his life he had made and lost several fortunes but died relatively poor.

In January 1876 Meyer Goldschmidt, proprietor of the Tivoli Garden formerly owned by Paul Falk, was arrested for selling beer on Sunday and for holding a Sacred concert which was actually a very poor variety show.

In April 1876 William Hoschke was the proprietor of the concert garden at 18 - 20 St. Mark's Place "formally managed by the late Paul Falk." Mr. Hoschke was accused of violating the law "prohibiting the sale of liquors in connection with the representation of theatrical entertainment."

In 1879 a complaint was received against the Tivoli at 19 St Mark's for non enforcement of the Excise law. Several members of the Prevention of Crime society went to the Tivoli on July 20 and 27 and saw liquor being "openly sold". There was also gambling in the bar room and on stage in the main hall was an exhibition "of a disgusting and loathsome character by women nearly nude." The bar keep and a waiter were arrested. In 1879 Tivoli Garden was cited for non compliance of the Excise Law.

In 1884 the Arion Hall was located at 19 St. Marks' Place.

In June 1893 graduation exercises for seniors of the Hebrew Technical Institute were held at Arlington Hall 19 St. Mark's Place.

In October 1899 the Arlington National bowling tournament was held at 19 St. Mark's Place.

In 1917 Arlington Hall was located at 19 St. Mark's Place.

*Captain Edward Walsh was a protege of the Tammany Ring and was reported to have allowed vice to flourish in the "pretty waitress saloons".


NYPL digital map undated. No 19 is shown as Arlington Hall on this map

19-23 St Mark's Place


Teutonia Hall - Teutonia Assembly Rooms - 16th street and 3rd ave - 158 - 160 3rd Avenue

1869:

"A new concert hall of magnificent dimensions and appointments, on Third-avenue, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth streets, was thrown open to the public last evening. It has been erected by Messrs. JOE. G. BROWNING and JACOB W. MOORE, at an immense outlay, and is the finest edifice set apart for this purpose in this City."

(NY Times)

The complex called Cosmopolitan Hall covered six full city lots and had 52 feet of frontage on Third avenue. It contained a large concert Hall, ball-room liquor and refreshment saloon.

1870: The German Democratic General committee of the City of New York met at the Teutonia Assembly Rooms 158 160 Third ave. They denounced Tammany. The organization was said to represented 30,000 voters in New York.

1871: About 1 0'clock in the morning nearing the end of a grand masquerade carnival ball one of the gentleman attending the event died of a heart attack. The midnight feast had ended and the band and dancing had resumed when Jacob Moritz of Williamsburg fell helplessly to the ground while dancing with his wife.

1871: A meeting of builders opposed to the "present" z building laws was held in Teutonia Hall in September 1871.

1871: July - The 95th National Anniversary of the German Democratic Union Party celebrated the 4th of July at the Teutonia Assembly rooms at Third ave and 16th street.

1871: The society of German hotel and pastry cooks had their annual ball on 13 November

1872: May - about 90 German showcase makers met at Tetonia Assembly rooms to talk about a strike. They were seeking an eight hour day and and increase in pay of twenty per cent.

1872: May and June Gatherings of striking cabinet makers about twenty-five hundred men were held at Teutonia Hall. The workers embraced every aspect of furniture making including: upholstery, cabinetmaking, gilding, carving, varnishing, joining

The strike was felt to be largely successful.

1872: June 8th - The writing desk makers met at Teutonia Assembly Rooms 3rd ave and 16th street to elect officers and prepare for a parade.

1872: German master barbers met at the Teutonia Assembly Rooms in June. The meeting was in response to the journeymen barbers who were seeking a reduction in hours to a 12 hour say from a 15 to 16 hour day. There was a certain level of animosity between the masters and the journeymen.

1872: The German Republican Central Committee met in Teutonia Assembly Rooms in August.

1873: - December 8 The Schleswig-Holsteiner gave their 5th annual ball at Teutonia Assembly Rooms.

1874: The cabinet makers met at Teutonia Assembly Rooms on April 21.

On Christmas Day in 1874 the junger Maennerchor gave a ball at the Teutonia Assembly Rooms.

1878: The 11th annual ball hosted by Battery A (formerly K) was held in Teutonia Assembly Rooms. The large hall was elaborately decorated for the event. "The legend, "Battery A, Artillery, N. G. S. N. Y." shone conspicuously in gas-jet at one end of the room."

1878: The Compainies A, B, E and K, Fifth Regiment gave a "reception, guard mounting, dress parade and review" at the Teutonia Assembly rooms an April 1.

1879: March 15 - The alumni Association of the college of Pharmancy held thier annual dinner.

1879: The "Gardes Lafayette" Battalion hosted a grand invitational ball March 30.

1880: July retail boot and shoe dealer met to discuss early closing on Mondays evenings.

1880: In August, Drug clerks met to discuss a reduction of evening house.

1881: Battery K 1st N. Y. division held its annual ball at Teutonia Hall on January 13.

1882: A large meeting of journeymen plumbers took place at the Teutonia Hall in April 1882. They were planning on going on strike. They were seeking an increase in pay from $3.50 a day to $4.00 a day.

1883: December The New York Retail Grocers celebrated with a reception at the Teutonia Assembly Rooms.

1885:

"The friends of the bon-vivant and the enemies of the dyspeptic left their stoves and their pans and the dantier accessories of the gastronomic art and repaired to the Teutonia Assembly Rooms, at Sixteenth-street and Third-avenue, last evening, there to rejoice and make glad.

On the "polished boards ... amid a wealth of decorations" were the costumed and masked chefs of some of New York finest hotels. (NY Time)

1888: January the Boss Bakers Society gave a ball at the Teutonia Assembly Hall.

1888: February 2nd the Pharmaceutical Graduates Bowling Club gave a ball at the Teutonia Hall. It was called a light ball because the ladies wore light colored gowns.

1888 February 15 Ash Wednesday, The Aeolian Bowling circle held their third annual ball in Teutonia Hall.

1888: February 16, Pretty Teutonia Hall was crowded with "loveliness in silks and satins" and "gentlemen in black broadcloth" for the fourth annual S. S. C. ball. A twenty piece orchestra provided the music.

1888: The Niederwald Association held a concert, banquet and dance. A large number of prominent Germans attended.

1888: The Rehoboth Lodge 38 I. O. B. B. held its annual ball.

1894: The United German Democracy of the City of New York met at Teutonia Assembly Rooms to endorce the Democratic and Tammany tickets.

1894: The 75th Anniversary Banquet and Ball of the German Lodge was held at the Teutonia Assembly Rooms. The New York Public Library has a copy of the program and the menu. The menu: SOUP Julienne with Marrow Balls - Chicken a la Reine FISH Kennebec Salmon with Sauce a la Hollandaise - Potatoes Parisienne HOR D'OEVRE - Oyster Patties, Olives, Pickles, Table Celery RELEVES Filet de Boeuf with Champignons, Asparagus with Egg Sauce and Croquettes SORBET Punch a la German Union ENTREE Squab on Toast with Green Peas ROAST Duck and Capon Lettuce Salad COLD DISHES Lobster and Chicken Salads PUDDING Cabinet and Chocolate with Vanilla Sauce COMPOTS Prunes Cranberry Jelly Peaches PASTRY Pyramids, Tarts, Fruits, French Candy, Assorted Cakes, Neapolitan Ice Cream Coffee

1895: In 1895 masked ball permits was granted for February 21 and March - at the Teutonia Assembly Rooms.

1895:

AN ENJOYABLE TIME AT THEIR ANNUAL BALL IN TEUTONIA HALL

Our friends of the German Apothecaries' Association, in this city, enjoyed every minute of their ball at Teutonia Hall on the evening of January 18, and made their guests feel as if there are no such hospitable people in the world as the Germans. The hall on Third avenue was well filled, probably 200 persons being presemt, and some of the ladies toilettes were especially pretty and artistic. At the supper President Ramsperger made a neat speech, welcoming the guests.

The Pharmaceutical Era, Volume 13

1896:
"The annual ball of the New Yorker Deutschen Apotheker Verein, which was held at Teutonia Hall, Sixteenth street and Third avenue, on the 17th inst., was one of the largest and most enjoyable in the history of the Verein. It was midnight before the fun really began but when it started the 100 couples or more that were in attendance saw to it that it did not abate. President V. Kostka was here, there and everywhere, looking after the comfort and enjoyment of the druggists and their pretty wives and daughters, and his efforts at filling the atmosphere with good fellowship were ably seconded by floor manager M. Arnemann.

To tell of all who were there would be simply to reprint the names of about all the retail German druggists in this city and Brooklyn, not to mention one or two from Jersey City and Newark. There were also delegations from the big wholesale houses. George Strauss and family, Mr. Olivet and several others represented Lehn & Fink ; Mr. Amend represented Eimer & Amend ; George T. Riefflin and wife appeared for Sharp & Dohme, and Parke, Davis & Co. and several other houses were in evidence. Among the more prominent retail druggists noted were: Dr. Tscheppe and Mr. Schur of Tscheppe & Schur ; O. Alexander, H. C. Wurm, Dr. Wetengel and daughters, Mr. Dohrenwend of Leister <8s Dohrenwend; H. Behrens of Brooklyn ; Charles E. Kessler, Paul F. Gebicke, E. J. Sultan and R. Staebler, Newark."

American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, Volume 28

1897: A conference of German-American societies was hel at the Teutonia Assembly rooms 3rd ave and 16th street

1897: The Iron Moulder met at Teutonia Hall on September 20.

1898: Union No 6 of the Typographic workers held a meeting in Teutonia Hall to elect new officers.

1904:

Basement of Teutonia Hall Is Badly Wrecked NEW YORK, Jan. 5 A mysterious explosion has caused considerable excitement among several hundred members of the Housesmiths' union, who were in session in the Teutonia assembly room at Third avenue and Fiftieth street. While the delegates were busy discussing union affairs a terrific explosion in the basement shook the building. In the bar on the ground floor glassware was destroyed and the patrons fled to the street. Investigation after the smoke cleared showed that a Japanese bomb of paper and tin had been set off. The damage was confined, however, to the glassware. Members of an opposition union are charged with the deed." Los Angeles Herald, Number 99, 6 January 1904

1906:
BOMB EXPLODED AMONG UNION PLUMBERS.

Hurled From Elevated Train in New York, Injuring Two Men and Causing a Panic

LABOR BODIES IN BITTER WARFARE

Members of Same Trade in the Metropolis Estranged for Several Years Past

SPECIAL DISPATCH TO THE CALL

NEW YORK. July 27 - Hurled from a southbound '"L" train with such unerring aim that all its victims were plumbers of Local JCo. 45O. now at war with Local No. 2. a bomb was exploded in front of Teutonia Hall, on Third avenue, at 8:30 o'clock tonight, seriously injuring two men and riddling the clothing and bodies of many others with small pieces of steel and pebbles. Scores of men were knocked down by the force of the explosion.

There was panic all through the neighborhood following the crash of the bomb. The flash of the explosion flared high in the air, attracting attention many blocks away. In front, of Teutonia Hall were gathered several hundred members of Local 45O. They were about to enter the hall to begin a meeting when the bomb was thrown from the train.

San Francisco Call, Volume 100, Number 58, 28 July 1906


NYPL undated map

Here the hall at the corner of 16ht and Third avenue is labeled Cosmopolitan Hall.


Turn Hall - The New York Turnverein

Turn Vereins were popular in Germany. The New York Turn Verein was founded in 1850 with 36 German speaking members. It's focus was on improving the mind and body. Gymnastics and fencing were emphasized. In 1859 the first home of the Turn Verein opened on Orchard street. The was a membership fee and yearly dues.

Many of its members fought on the Union side in the Civil War. Many belonged to the 20th Regiment of New York Volunteers know as the Turners Rifles. At the Battle of Antietam 38 members were killed, 96 were wounded and 11 were missing. Other Turn Vereins across the county contributed funds to benefit the families of the New York Turner Rifles, 20th Regiment.

William Winckel and his wife, Jacobina, ran the Turn Hall for a number of years until his death in 1880 after a fire at the hall. In 1870 they were listed in the Census: Winckel Wm age 29 beer saloon, $2,000 Prussia, Jacobina age 22 born Bavaria.

1873: December 8th - The Saengerlust Vocal Society gave a well attended concert followed by a ball at the Turn Hall.

1874: Turn Verein Hall 66 -68 4th street near Second

1874: William Winckel was the manager of the Turn Hall. He met with the Police Commission and other German saloon keepers about the Sunday Blue laws in 1874.

In December 1874 William Winckel of Turn Hall E 4th street was sued by the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents for running a music hall without a license.

1874: On Christmas day the Schullerbund held a musical and dramatic soiree followed by a ball at the Turn Hall on 4th street.

In 1875 the members of the New York Turn Verein and their guests celebrated Pfingst Montag with a picnic at Jones Woods. A procession starting on 4th street marched down Second ave. to Houston street, to Ave. A to Seventh street, to Avenue B to ninth street to the river where they took boats to Jones Woods. At Jones Woods there was gymnastic exercises, singing, dancing, games and more parades.

1878: The Turn Hall in E 4th street held dramatic performances for about a thousand German men and women. Smoking and beer drinking went on during the play. The hall was under the management of the Schieswig-Bolstein Verein. The evening ended with a ball.

On January 5th 1880 the four story plus basement solidly build brick Turn Hall burned. Thirteen people lived in the building. Four escaped without injury including three male waiters. William Winckel age 40 was in charge of the building and he ran the bar and catering. He lived there with his wife, Jocobina, her sister, Margaret Geib, and nephew, Willie Geib, age 10. Others is the building were servants in his employ. The fire started in the night when all of the residents were asleep in bed. It spread very quickly and the building filled with smoke. Twelve engines responded to the blaze.

Mr. and Mrs. Winckel, who were on the 4th floor, became separated in the confusion. She escaped through a door with minor burns. He was terribly burned. He was removed through a hole the firemen cut in the roof. The sister-in-law was also taken though the roof. The were taken to Bellevue. Little Willie, the Winckel nephew, burned to death. Four other residents who lived in the garret, including the Turn's bartender, made their way to the roof of the adjoining building. A male waiter in the garret died of smoke inhalation. A male waiter died when he jumped form the roof. Three women who resided on the other side of the garret leapt from the window to the sidewalk 60 feet below. One died in the fall the other two were terribly bruised and were taken to the hospital. One of the died several hours later. Mrs. Winckels's parents who lived in the building next door reached the ground safely. Margaret Geib was divorced from her husband who still lived in Germany. The adjoining building at 64 East Forth street was said to be owned by Winckel.

Built in 1870 at a cost of $151,000 it had 50 feet of frontage on 4th street and went through to 3rd street. In 1880 the building had a mortgage of $60,000. Next to the building was a smaller building that belonged to the society. It houses some lodgers and a German School. The two building were connected by doors. The central portion of the first floor contained a large hall 80 feet by 100 feet which also had a stage. The room was mostly used for parties and dances. On the lower floor on 3rd street side was a gymnasium. Above the gymnasium was a Primary school. In the basement was a billiard room and bowling alley. In front was a wine room.

The Turn society had previously occupied a building on Orchard street. The society was established circa 1850 and had 400 members in 1880. They had a library of about 3,000 book many of which were destroyed in the fire. A marble slab with the names of the Turn members of the 20th Regiment New York Volunteers who were killed in the Civil War was damaged. Organizations who rented space in the building were: the Schillerbund Benevolent Association, the New York Singing Academy, The Eichenkrarz, the Laudwehr Society and several lodges of Odd Fellows.

The building was insured. Damage was estimated at $20,00 to $25,000. The society paid the funeral expenses of those with out family. The Ascheubrodel and Beethoven Societies offered the use of their facilities until repairs could be made to the Turn Hall. The night before the fire the Turn Society of Yonkers and joined their Manhattan comrades for a party. They finished their party about 3' o'clock in the morning. Earlier in the evening there had been a Jewish wedding party that was over by 12 or 1 o'clock. The large main staircase with many turns served as a conduit for the flames. There were no provision for fire escape from the garret.

Major William Winckel, custodian of the New York Turn Hall, weighted 200 pounds, was broad shouldered and ruddy cheeked with light hair and a beard. He was born in Pragel Westphalia, Germany and came to the US circa 1860. During the Civil War he began a as lieutenant in the Third Pennsylvania Artillery. He rose in rank to Major. He was in command of the detachment charged with guarding Jefferson Davis at Fortress Monroe. Winckel was slightly wounded in the leg in one battle. After the war he leased the Westphalia Hall on First ave for several years. He had taken the lease on the Turn Hall around 1872.

The Winckels kept three pet Spitz dogs. On Sunday January 12 1880 William Winckel died from the injuries he suffered in the fire. His remains were take to the Arion Society rooms on St. Mark's place for a viewing from 9 to noon. The building was swathed with mourning drapes. Representatives of a number of vereins and societies marched into the hall at 1 o'clock where they heard a eulogy and two chorals. The Gilmore band played. At the end of the service a procession was formed to escort the hearse down Second Avenue to Second street and from there to the Staten Island Ferry to Woodlawn Cemetery, At the cemetery several singing societies sung a dirge.

The 1880 Federal Mortality Census listed William Winckel age 40, died January (no date) born Germany, caterer, died Bellevue Hospital, burns of hands, feet and face superficial at fire in 66 E 4th street

In 1884 Jacobina, the widow of William Winckel was at 154 W 10th street.

The will of William Winckel was probated in 1888 with his widow, Jacobina Geib Winckel, being the sole heir. The will was written January 7, 1880 and William was unable to sign due to the injuries to his hands suffered at the burning of the Turn Hall at 68 E 4th street. It was witnesses by Dr. Matthew D Field. M. D., of Bellevue Hosptial who signed for William.

On Monday March 22 1880 at 8:00 P. M. the New York Turn Verein of 66 and 68 East 4th street opened a fair which was very well attended. The hall was beautifully decorated with the national colors, oil paintings, engravings and more. There were at least 15 booths selling useful and "fancy" articles. Each booth was tended by women in traditional costumes. The boothes sold: furniture, candy, lunch, shoes, groceries, fancy goods, perfume, cigars, weighing scales, furs, toys.

"Miss Breisel made a vey picturesque and attractive Rebecca and the well at which she presided was thronged with drinkers. The art collection was very extensive, embracing Thomas Moran's famous painting, "Ponce de Leon in Florida" and other productions of equal merit, many of them on load from private collections on Fifth avenue."
Raffled items included two pianos, two billiard tables, a silver cup (to be awarded to the best singing society), a brass canon (to be presented to the most popular military organization), a live pig, various articles of expensive furniture from the best makers. Among articles available for sale were two "remarkably artistic" sugar models of the Turn Hall and a silver chess set said to have belonged to Napoleon I. The mayor spoke. He offered his sympathy on the recent fire and complimented them on their "characteristic energy they had displayed in rebuilding and restoring the structure" and their spirit of unity in an emergency. There were other speeches and of course singing. The fair was to last two weeks and was held to "defray the loss caused by the recent fire." (New York Times, March 23, 1880)

Moran, Ponce de Leon in Florida

On whit Monday May 17, 1880 the Turn Verein members met at the hall on Forth street at 9 in the morning. From there they marche through the neighborhood, down Second to Houston, up avenue A to to 7th , 7th to Avenue B, up avenue B to 9th where the caught a boat for Harlem and Jones Woods. The boys were dressed in blue flannel suits and the girls in light short flocks. At the park three were gymnastic demonstration. Other German societies joined them. There was dancing and archery.

In 1881 the first pupil exhibition of "young ladies" of the Turn Hall Gymnasium was given at the Turn Hall in December.

In April 1882 the Turn Verein held its annual exhibition at the hall on 4th street. The entrainment included: the horizontal and parallel bars, wrestling, human pyramids, fencing and music. There was club swinging by a class of young grils. The evening ended with a "hop" for members and their lady friends.

In 1887 the New York Turn Verein had a membership of over a thousand including young girls as young as six years old.

1895: June 7,

The forty-fifth anniversary of the New-York Turn Verein was celebrated at the society's hall, 66 and 68 Fourth Street, last night. The members and invited guests sat around tables the full length of the hall. The assemblage numbered about 500 members and invited guests, who were entertained with addresses, German songs, and general German sociability.

(New York Times)

Speeches and toast were given. Songs were song At that time there was a proposal to build a new Turn hall "in the northern part of the city."

A Turn hall was built at Lexington and 85th street.

The NYC Landmark Preservation commission stated in 21012:

"The south side includes Nos. 64 to 68, which comprised the centerpiece of a residential development known as Albion Place, a handsome terrace of 12 uniformly designed, 3½ - story houses that were completed in 1833. Nos. 66 and 68 were combined and raised to four stories in 1871 as part of a conversion by the New York Turn Verein, a German gymnastics organization. In 1882, the Turn Verein hosted the first Yiddish-language theatrical production ever staged in the United States. It has been an annex of the La Mama Experimental Theatre Club since the 1970s."

Turn-Verein, 66 and 68 the East 4th street

Societies and Amusements


Map c 1868 NYPL digital collection

the Turn Hall is the pink colored building that runs from 66 68 East Forth street through to E Third street. This building still stands.

To the east of it at no 74 E 4th street is the Aschenbroedel Verein Hall at one time known as the National Assembly Rooms. The building that stands there today was built in 1873.

ASCHENBROEDEL VEREIN (later GESANGVEREIN SCHILLERBUND/ now LA MAMA EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE CLUB) BUILDING, 74 East 4th Street, Manhattan


Union Assembly Rooms - Elizabeth and Grand streets - 107 Elizabeth street

1857: A grand ball was held at the Union Assembly rooms in Grand street.

1861: Germans celebrated at the Union Assembly Rooms on Thanksgiving Day.

In 1863 John Muller was the proprietor of the Union Assembly Rooms per Music in Gotham.

1864: The barbars and hairdressers held a general meeting at 218 Grand Street in March.

1864: Cabinetmaker met in May 1864.

1865 : "Janna Enuo---- takes an exhibition at the Union Assembly Rooms corner of Grand and Elizabeth streets on Saturday evening the 18th inst." (Spirit of the Times and the New York Sportsman, Volumes 13-14)

1866: A fire at the Union Assembly Rooms at Elizabeth near Grand, "formerly known as the "Major's Ball Room" broke out between 3 and 4 in the afternoon. It was extinguished by the proprietor, Mr. Muller, and several other people. A gas man inadvertently broke open a pipe and the escaping gas ignited. Muller and the gas man suffered burns.

1867: Company K of the 96th Regiment gave their annual ball on Jan 5

1867: Kraeger command will give their third annual ball at the Union Assembly Rooms, Elizabeth street, corner of Grand, on Tuesday evening, January 15th."

1868: "Annual Session of the Grand Division Sons of Temperance. Yesterday morning the Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance of the Eastern Jurisdiction of New-York commenced its annual session in the Union Assembly Rooms, No. 105 Elizabeth-street, in this City. About 250 members were present, and nearly 100 were initiated. Several lady members from country districts were in attendance." (NY Times)

1868: The Bremerode Social Club gave a Thanksgiving Day Ball at the Union Assembly.

1869: February 7, Journeymen bakers held a ball at the Union Assembly.

1869: February 21,

"The usual meeting of the book and job printers on strike took place yesterday, at Botanic Hall. The time was chiefly occupied in arranging for a mass meeting of the entire craft to-morrow, at 3 o'clock, at the Union Assembly Rooms, corner of Elizabeth and Grand streets. "

(NY Times)

1869: October 14 - A later hour "affray" occurred at the Union Assembly Rooms at Grand and Elizabeth at a ball given by the Patrick Murphy Club. A policeman was stabbed in the leg.

1869: German cooks employed by the principle hotels of the city held their 5th annual reunion at the Union Assembly rooms.

1870: January 24, Wormatia singing society had a masked ball at the Union rooms 103 to 107 Elizabeth street.

1870: On Febraury 23rd Frenchmen had a banquet commemorating the French Revolution of February 24, 1848 when Louis Philip was deposed and a short lived republic was inaugurated.

1870: March 2, The German doorkeeper shot an Irishman who was attempting admission to get a drink at the Union Assembly rooms on Monday night. The German was arrested. No pistel was found on either man.

1870: In November Brooke's Union Assembly Rooms on Grand was in "excellent order for dances" having booked engagements for twenty two associations.

1871: Swiss, Bohemians, Frenchmen and Belgians belonging to the International Working Men's Union held a festival on February 14. 1871: The Bremervoerde Society had a Thanksgiving Day event at the Union Assembly Rooms on Elizabeth Street.

1871: German confectioneer held their 5th annual ball on November 15.

1872: Republicans of the Third District met on Jul 16 at the Union Assembly rooms.

1873: On December 28 a sizable contingent of New York city policemen raided "an alleged disputable dance-hours" at the corner of Grand and Elizabeth known as the Union Assembly Rooms. John Reiss and his son ran the place. It was said to be a resort for young thieves and "abandoned females of the worts type of character". The location had a very bad reputation and resectable people in the neighborhood complained of "the nightly orgies were of the most disgraceful description". "Balls, attended by young thieves and the lowest class of females, were of nightly occurrence there and Sunday night appears to have been usually selected for the most boisterous and disgraceful scenes. Liquor of the vilest sort was freely dispenced." There were frequent fights. The police were determined to "break up the place". The police arrived as a "ball" was in progress on the second floor. They entered through doors on both Elizabeth street and Grand street. There were about 250 males and 70 females attending the 'ball". Mayhem ensued as everyone tried to get out - first by the doors and then by the windows. Everyone was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. The proprietor was arrested for keeping a disorderly house and serving liquor on Sunday and the receipts of the evening (a total of $59) were confiscated.

The Union Assembly Rooms held the usual political and work related meetings and balls but they seem to have been a bit more inclusive than some of the others halls, in that there were meetings of Irishmen, Belgians, French as often as Germans.


Map c 1862 NYPL digital collection

107 Elizabeth is the large almost square pink building with the three skylights - nest to the soap and candle Manufactory.


Volks Garden - 199 Bowery

In 1968 Peter Tracey who kept a saloon at 199 Bowery was shot and killed.

In September 1869 Charley Shay of 199 Bowery was advertising for musicians: double bass and tuba, cornet, second violin, and alto horn - one year's engagement.

1869: For Sale

"A rare and valuable attraction - to proprietors of museums, side shows, collectors of curiosities etc. For Sale the original, Cynocephalus*, which cause such a wonderful and wide-spread sensation by his equestrian feats at the New York Circus. The only orangoutan <sic> that ever appeared in any part of the world as a circus rider; noticed by the press and talked of by the public in all parts of the United Sates and Europe. An extraordinary, and profitable attraction, enclosed in handsome glass, case, with the original dress won by him in his performances; wood cuts descriptions bills etc. For sale cheap. Apply at Charley Shays Quincuplexal Saloon, 199 Bowery, adjoining the Pastor's Opera House."
*dog headed.

In 1870 199 Bowery the "largest and best fitted up Billard Hall and Saloon on the Bowery" was for sale because the owner was traveling.

In 1872 Charley Shay's Monster Quincuplexal Exposition featured burlesque, pantomime, dog acts, and acrobatic acts. Charley and his troupe traveled around the US and Charley Shay's Colossal Traveling Troupe was known throughout the country.

1875: 199 Bowery, the garden once owned by Paul Falk, in 1875 was managed by Jacob Schwarzschield for the widow Falk. A police office discovered that the "Sacred Concert" consisted of "one or two doleful melodies several lively airs and a few acrobatic performances" accompanied by a "good deal of beer drinking". Schwarzschield was arrested for violation of the Sunday laws.

1877: Falk, Augusta 199 Bowery, beer

1878: The Volks Garden at 199 Bowery was selling beer and liquor to about 500 people on Sunday November 3 1878 at a "Sacred concert" featuring German and Irish music. Admission 15 cents. The Volks Garden was a theater with galleries and private boxes with tables available throughout.

In 1878 the "French Spy" was revived for a night at the Volks-Garden where a smiling Wm Gieselberg presided.

In 1879 under the management of William Gieselberg the Volk Theater was receiving excellent reviews for the programs they put on. It was said to be a very popular resort.

1879: Ad Volk's Garden 199 Bowery opposite Spring street, Variety Theater, The London Music Hall of America - proprietor Mrs Paul Falk - Wm T Gieselberg Manager - Capt Geo T Shaw stage manager. First class talent at all times.

In 1876 William Gieselberg was listed at 199 Bowery beer home 303 fifth

1880: Volksgarden Theater 199 Bowery.

1882: Folk Augusta widow Paul 199 Bowery h 1050 Second Ave.

1882:

" Investigator George McDermott, after visiting Volk's Theater in 1882, was "most astonished" by the many unchaperoned children. Out of an audience consisting mostly of minors, he counted at least 200 children between 7 and 10 years of age, 500 under 14. "For the purpose of corrupting the minds of children," concluded McDermott, "this place affords better advantage than any other resort I know."

Street-Rats and Gutter-Snipes: Child Pickpockets and Street Culture in New York City, 1850- 1900 Author(s): Timothy J. Gilfoyle

In 1881 Two children ages 10 and 11 were sold tickets to the Volk Theater but the doorman would not allow them to enter. An 1859 law prohibited children under 12 in a theater unless accompanied by a parent or guardian. Their money was not refunded until their mother notified the police. Mrs. Augusta Falk was the proprietress of the theater. She was arrested for selling tickets to minors. Mrs. Falk was arraigned by an office of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

In 1881 the home of August Falk, the widow of Paul Falk, at 1050 Second ave was broken into by sneak thieves. Jewelry worth $1,200 was stolen including: a diamond ring with three stones, two gold wedding band, two gold bracelets and a gold watch presented to Mrs Falk buy the employees of the Volk Garden in 1879.

Paul Falk owned Tivoli Gardens 19 St. Marks' place. See above.

1880: 1050 Second ave, Augusta Falk 42, widow, theater, Anna Falk 21 Pauline Falk 17 Henry Falk 12 Frederika Falk 8 Paul Falk 6, a servant and a boarder.

1910: West 22 street, Augusta Falk 72, 5 children 5 living, Henry H Falk 42, clerical wholesale wines, Annie Falk 51 Pauline Falk 46 Paul Falk 36, salesman, Anna M Falk 36, daughter in law, Oscar E Colson 30, lodger, Maurice Jeanjaqurt 56, lodger, Francis Mc Manus 41, lodger

1920: 22nd street, Augusta Falk 82, head, widow, Anna Falk 50 Pauline Falk 49 Henry Falk 51, clerk wine co. Paul Falk 46, salesman cloak and suit, Nellie Falk 48, daughter in law, Anna Falk 46, daughter in law, Oscar E Coleson 40, lodger, August Lunburg 40, lodger

Augusta Falk died in 1923.

In 1888 George Krauss owned the Volk Garden on the Bowery.

In March 1889 the music hall men were lying low. The police were once again making arrests at halls holding "Sacred Concerts". The decision of most of the beer hall men was to keep the halls closed on Sundays until the law could be repealed.

In 1891 George Krauss was a Bowery liquor dealer and beer garden proprietor.

In 1893 some visitos to Krauss's Volk Garden on the Bowery were forcibly ejected with out provocation.

In 1892 George T Krauss was the proprietor of the Volks Garden on the Bowery. Promptly at midnight on Saturday the lights went out in the concert hall and the bar stopped serving drinks. Other establishments in the area were also shut up as "tight as a drum" The police were on the patrol for violators. An occasional side door did swing open. Men stood guard outside the side doors and passed in friends. Strangers were bounced.

In November 1899 George Krauss place a $2,000 bet with Jim Corbett in favor of Sharkey on the Coney Island fight between James J Jeffries and Tom Sharkey for the heavyweight championship. Jeffries won.

In 1897 Krauss was the manager of Krauss concert Hall in East 14th street.

George Krauss died in June 1914. He was 63. Krauss like so many of the Beer Hall success stories was sait to have started out practically penniless and worked his way up. He became a big success in the "amusement field" and acquired money power and notoriety.

By 1896 George J. Krauss owned concert saloons in the Bowery and the vice ridden Tenderloin District. He was a partner of Big Tim Sullivan. Sullivan was the eponym of Tammany corruption and the Tammany propensity for lascivious pleasures like drinking, gamling and prostitution.

George J. Krauss was born in the 10th ward circa 1850. He attended public schools in New York City. From 14 to 16 he worked at a law firm. He signed with Campell's minstrels and played second violen on the road for five years. At age 25 he returned to New York and went to work for his father as a bookkeeper. He became interested in politics and was elected Assistant Alderman. He was a staunch Tammany man. By 1893 he owned the Imperial Music Hall on 29th street and the Volks Garden on the Bowery. According to a Tammany publication his establishments were known for their "order and decorum". (The Tammany Times 1893)


George J. Kraus - image from the Tammany Times 1893

In the 1910 census George J Krauss age 61 was a guest at the Hotel Cadillac on West 43 street. He was listed with his wife, Fanny age 59. They were married 40 years and had 7 children 4 still living. His occupation was owner theater. He was born in New York to Germany/Austrian parents.

The name was also spelled Kraus. He was also sometimes referred to as Morris.

Timothy Sullivan


Map 1916 NYPL digital collection

199 Bowery People's Theater.


Walhalla Hall - 52-54 Orchard Street

Walhalla Hall was built in 1868. Adam and Conrad Geib rented the hall from the builder, Hardfeldter, and for many years it was one of the prime meeting halls for the German population of the area. It was demolished before 1900.

Walhalla Hall occupied two (or three) lots on 52 to 54 Orchard street between Hester and Grand.

1868: The Schwavischer Saengerbud gave a Thanksgiving ball at Walhalla

1869: The Maenger Carnival society held a ball at Gieb's Walhalla. The rooms were handsomely decorated with flower wreathes and garlands. The galleries were brightly illuminated with gas jets in the form of revolving suns. Large concave mirrors behind the gas lamps amplified the illusion. Humorous speeches were given. Songs were sung. Burlesques were performed.

In May 1869 members of the Harugari Liederkranz (the benevolent order of the Harugari) met at Geib's Walhalla in Orchard street every night.

In January 1870 the Mamzer Carneval Verein held a session of songs, music, and dramatic representation. at Geib's Walhalla Hall.

In January 1870 a German masked ball was given by the Schwaebisher Saengerbund at the Walhalla Hall

In June 1870 on Whit Monday the Triton Schuetzen Corps whose headquarters were at the Walhalla Hall went to Landmann's in Hamilton Park on Third avenue near 67 street. At they started the shooting competitions they were ordered to stop because of a complaint of a neighbor who feared some stray bullets might hit his house. An appeal was made to the mayor who said they could continue. However, they were again stopped. A compromise was reached when the back of the shooting stand was reinforced. The event was accompanied by the usual dancing, games and other amusements.

In 1872 the Tuner Hall chess club met at 52 and 54 Orchard street.

Harugari

In June 1872 there was a call for all Morocco Case makers to meet at Walhalla Hall 48 & 52 Orchard street. Morocco cases were/are fabric lined Morocco leather covered cases for instruments or equipment of various types. Morocco leather covered case

In June 1872 about fifteen hundred men on strike from the sugar refineries met at Walhalla Hall on Orchard street to elect officer to represent them. They worked 13 to 14 hour days in closed building in intense heat. They were striking for half the hours and double the pay. Another article says they were asking for and increase in pay from $1.60 a day to $2.50 a day and a decrease in the number of hours worked per day to ten in addition to 25 cents per hour for overtime.

1873: The German Journeyman cigar makers Held their annual meeting at Geib's Wahallah Hall, August 1873.

The Columbia Benevolent Society gave its 7th annual benefit ball at the Walhalla Hall in 187-.

In February 1874 the Friendship German Women's Aid Society gave a well attended masquerade ball at Walhalla Hall.

1874: Adam Gelb [Geib?]of the Wahalla Halls met with other German saloon keepers and the Police Commission about the Sunday Blue laws.

1874: On Christmas day the Suavian Saegerbund distributed gifts, followed by a Christmas soiree and then a ball at the Walhalla Hall.

1877: 3rd Annual Masquerade Ball of the Confectioner's Association held February 8 at Geib's Wahalla hall. tickets $1.

1878: On Sunday evening Nov 3, Walhalla Hall at 48 Orchard street a benefit ball was hosted by the The Circle a German women's' aid society.

1880: On Whit Monday in 1880 the 61 companies of the Germania Schuetzenbund (Shooting Societies) met at Wahalia hall in the morning then marched to City Hall where they were reviewed by the mayor and aldermen. After the review they marched to the Barclay street Ferry and crossed the river to Union City to the Schuetzen Park. They were met there by a Hoboken contingency. By afternoon there were several thousand people in the Schuetzen Park. There was band music, singing, dancing, eating and, of course, shooting in addition to bowling, gymnastics and various races. The celebration went on until midnight. And the competition went on for several days.

1880: Funeral services were held for Conrad Geib, age 56, years, 11 months and 22 days, in Walhalla Hall July 28, 1800. The attendance was large with many German organizations and societies represented. A procession four abreast followed the hearse to the ferry and then on to the Lutheran cemetery.

1881: In March 1881 the annual invitation ball of the drum corps of the Eleventh Regiment took place at Walhalla Hall.

In October 1881 the annual ball of the Sociable Jolly Twelve was held at Walhalla Hall on October 20.

1882: In March 1882 Edward Von Eichenan, a 38 year old barber the son of an Austrian Baron, died in a cell at the Eldridge Street Police Station. He had been arrested at the Walhalla Hall on Orchard Street - a venue chiefly visited by Germans. Von Eichenan was attending the forth annual ball given by the Vaterlands Company of the First Battalion Germania Schuetzenbund when a political quarrel arrose. The fight reached a point when the police were called. Von Eichenan, who had been drinking, was charged with disorderly conduct. Shortly after he was placed in the cell he was found sick and died as an ambulance arrived to take him to the hospital. Some witnesses said Von Eichenan had had been clubbed by the police and thrown down a stairs but an autopsy showed he has most likely ingested poison. However, the coroner also found contusions on the right wrist, on the back of the right hand, on the right arm, the right leg and the left knee. There was no sign of blows to the head. It was stated that Von Eichenan had committed suicide.

1883: On the 22 of February 1883 members of the Dahlgren Post entertained seven vetrans of the War of 1812 at a dinner. The veterans assembled at the Military Hall on the Bowery around noon and were escorted by the Dalhgren Post to Walhalla Hall. Three other vetrans were unable to attend.

July 4 1883 was celebrated by the Members of the Dahlgren Post No 113. They marched form Walhalla Hall to the Battery to observe the sunrise ceremony of the raising of the flag in commemoration of the War of 1812. The Declaration of Independence was read. Speeches were give and a sunrise artillery salute was fired.

1884: Special deputy sheriff, Thomas J. Sullivan, employed at Geib's Walhalla Hall was shot three times in Patrick J. Hickey's saloon at 125 Canal street in February 1884. "Our Own Pleasure Club" had sponsored a ball at Geib's on Saturday night. The party ran late. On his was home about six o'clock in the morning. Sullivan stopped at hHickey's saloon. There he treated several patrons to drinks. They stood around drinking and trading insults until about nine thirty in the morning when one of the drinkers took out his pistol and shot Sullivan in the back. A scuffle ensued and Sullivan was shot two more times. As a boy Sullivan had been a drummer in the 88th New York Volunteers. After the was he worked as a bartender and wagon driver. He was married with two children. He was expected to survive his wounds.

In February 1887 the veterans of the War of 1812 met to hoist the flag at Battery Park at sunrise. Later members of the Dahlgren Post, in full uniform and with drum corps, marched from Military Hall on the Bowery to the Walhalla Hall where dinner was served to the the group including three honored vetrans of the War of 1812.

In 1887 The Veteran Club gave an annual ball and gift entertainment on October 18, at Walhalla Hall 58 Orchard street.

In January 1888 the annual invitation ball of the John F Ahearn Association was held at Walhalla Hall.

In October 1888 the third annual reception of the Henry F Dynan Association was held at Walhalla Hall. The party was very pleasant and highly enjoyed.

In December 1888 the Independent Walhalla Boat Club had their annual Christmas party in the Walhalla Hall at "48" Orchard street.

In October 1880 the Independent Walhalla Boat Club held a ball at Walhalla Hall.

In January 1889 the annual reception for the Hermann Klatte Club was held at Walhalla Hall.

On New Years Eve 1890 the Harry H Genet Association held a ball at Walhalla Hall.

In 1892 Barnett Cohan was granted permission to place four ornamental lamp-posts within the stoop-line in front of Walhalla Hall 48, 50 and 52 Orchard street.

In December 1892 there was a dance at Walhalla Hall sponsored by the society of the friends of Larry Hopper Gent's Social Club. "The most "swagger" set in the district." A prize for the best dancer was a goat. Somebody swiped the goat and a fight ensued. The crowd appears to have included a lot of Irishmen.

In August 1893 unemployed Polish workers attached Walhalla Hall because they had not been allowed to have a meeting there. They were driven off by police. In 1893, 94, 95, 96 & 97 many meetings of striking workers were held in the hall.

WRECKED WALHALLA HALL; UNEMPLOYED HEBREW WORKMEN HAVE A SMALL RIOT. Police Reserves Called Out to Quell the Disturbance -- There Was Trouble About Hiring the Hall and a Crowd of 5,000 Broke in -- Three Men Were Arrested -- When They Were Released Their Fellows Smashed Chairs, Chandeliers, and Mirrors -- Twenty in Custody.

About 5,000 of the unemployed Hebrews of the east side, restless and uneasy at their failure to obtain employment, attempted yesterday to hold a mass meeting in Walhalla Hall, 50 Orchard Street. From an orderly gathering it became transformed into a mob of angry, excited men which demolished property and made it necessary to have called out the police reserve of several of the nearest stations."

New York Times

Calm was restored and a metting was allowed to proceed.

In 1893 there was a saloon at the front of the hall.

1895: A masked ball permit for March 9 was given to B Fendel [?] at Walhalla Hall.

In May 1897 crowds of striking tailors met at Walhalla Hall.

1897:

" Walhalla Hall, at Orchard Street near Grand Street, is the best known public gathering place in all New Israel. There public meetings are held, strikes are organized and managed, conventions manipulated, and marriages are celebrated. There public meetings are held, strikes are organized and managed, conventions manipulated, and marriages are celebrated. Balls and dances attract the gay youngsters of every class, style and description. Some of the associations which have had their "grand annual receptions" there, this year, are "The East Side Dramatic and Pleasure Association," "The Pete Hill Association," "The East Side Crashers," "The Lady Liberties of the Fourth Ward," "The Bowery Indians," "The Crescent Coterie," "The Lady Flashers," and "The Jolly 48." Recently a ball was given by "The Eothens," a literary, dramatic, social and dancing club, of which Reddy McDevitt is president. According to a veracious account of the affair - "Daisy Gorona, a pretty, black-eyed Italian, who dances with the grace which most of her countrywomen exhibit, was the belle of the ball. Her father is a butcher, whose shop is in Baxter Street. Her 'steady' is Jim Clarke, who is trying to be a conductor on the Third Avenue cable line. James Sullivan, who says he is a driver, and who gives his residence as Number 19 Delancey Street, was a guest at the ball, and his fancy was taken by the grace and bright eyes of Miss Daisy. He was dressed in the style most approved by the Bowery tailors, and he found favor in Daisy's eyes. The ball went along harmoniously till midnight. Then President McDevitt mounted a beer keg which lay in one corner of the room, and made the ceiling echo with his shout for order. 'Now's de -time,' he cried 'now's de time fer de prize spieling. De Eothen Club gives a box of cigars to de best gent spieler and a fan ter de best lady spieler. I'm de judge. De band will please play "My Pearl is a Bowery Girl."' A rush for partners immediately followed. As Daisy Gorona was admittedly the best dancer in the hall, ten or twelve men started on the run to claim her hand for the dance. Jim Clarke, her 'steady,' thinking the ice cream he intended to buy for her this summer pledged her to him, was a laggard, and Sullivan, the loud-trousered guest, won the girl. Moreover, he won the prize, for he and Daisy 'outspieled 'em all.' But President McDevitt's award did not meet with approval. In a moment fists were flying. 'Get on out of here!' shouted the president. 'Do your fighting in the street!' One man was thrown downstairs, and the rest followed. The sidewalk was a mass of fighting men when Acting - captain Hogan and Detectives Cohen and Monahan, of the Eldridge Street station, approached. Suddenly Clarke yelled that he had been stabbed, and the blood trickled down his arm from The Tongh couple, a wound made by a pocket - knife. The crowd was so thick that it was impossible to tell who the assailant was, and the police were unable to make an arrest. Sullivan remained on the outskirts of the crowd and took no part in the fight. His attention was soon attracted by the handsome diamond pin, the pride of the Eldridge Street station, which reposed in Detective Monahan's necktie. He edged his way to the policeman's side and his hand softly grasped the diamond. It was fastened by a small gold chain, however, and did not respond to the touch. Monahan paid no attention to the attempt at robbery, and Sullivan grasped the tie in his left hand and tried to break the chain. Then the policeman's arms were around him and he was placed under arrest. In his pockets were found a gold watch, which had evidently been wrenched from a chain, and $110. At the station he was recognized as an old-time pickpocket, and he was held for trial in $1,000 bail in the Essex Market Police Court. As Sullivan was being led away, Daisy Gorona came out of the hall and heard the story of the arrest. 'Only a pickpocket,' said she, 'and I fought he was a swell.' Then she caught sight of Clarke, who was nursing his bleeding arm. She ran up and printed a kiss on his cheek, with the remark: 'My "steady" is the best, after all.' This ended the ball."

The ball of the "Soup Greens" was another flamboyant affair. Among those present were President Mollony, Vice-president Nolan, Bug Connors and Katie Riley; Limpy Farrell and Maggie Nolan; some members of the Lady Barker's Association; Mixed-ale Marty Donahue, with Mary Ellen Hogan, Slimmy Maher and Slob Cullen; and they danced until daybreak.

Pickpockets and petty thieves resort to Walhalla Hall. "

The American metropolis from Knickerbocker days to the present time; New ... By Frank Moss

1898: In December of 1898 the Old Walhalla Hall was set to close its doors. The building was dark and empty with a TO LET sign over the front. Once a favorite music, dance and meeting hall its popularity had waned as the German population of the neighborhood had changed. For a while it was a popular place for the striking cloak makers and tailors who were very poor and could not pay the rent. The name was changed to New Prospect Hall but that did not improve the conditions. The last person to lease the hall was Joseph Kempner who could not make a go of it and fell into arrears in the rent. The property belonged to a very wealth widow, Elizabeth Herfelder. On December 31, 1898 it was announced that the old Wahalla Hall had been sold and was to be turned into a Synagogue. It was said to cover two city lots.

Conrad Geig

Conrad Geib was born at Genzigen, Rhein-Hessen in 1823. He came to the United Sates in 1840. He worked for a number of years as a saddler. In 1861 he and his brother, Adam, established a popular wine garden called Clinton Garden on Delancy street. In 1865 the brothers opened Walhalla Hall on Orchard street. In the early 1870s Conrad Geib was involved in politics. He was associated with a large number of German societies. At the time of his death he was Customs Inspector at the Barge Office. He died from cerbro-spinal meningitis.

Italics mine. Was this the Clinton Garden at 126 Clinton street, just below Delancey?

1864: ??? Mr. Conr Geib Arrival 23 May 1864 Age: 40, merchant, Ethnicity/ Nationality: American Place of Origin: New York Port of Departure: Bremen, Germany Destination: United States of America Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: America

1867: Conrad Geib 52 Orchard Occupation: Saloon Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1868

1870: Conrad Geib 47, saddler and keeper of Walhalla, $500, Babette Geib 30 Frieder Geib 18 Gustav Geib 16 Sahra Geib 14 Henry Geib 9 William Geib 7 Friedr Geib 5 Cathar Geib 3 Conrad Geib 8/12 Heinr Knopf 29, bartender, John Gorg 21, servant bottler

1872: Conrad Geib 48 Orchard Occupation: Beer Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1872

1880: 52 Orchard Street, Conrad Geib 56, customs house inspector, Barbara Geib 41 Henry Geib 19 William Geib 16 Frederick Geib 15 Katie Geib 12 Conrad Geib 10, two borders one a bartender, and a servant

Adam Geig

1870: Adam Geib 37, keeper of the Walhalla, $500, Catharine Geib 29 Caroline Geib 5 Louis Geib 3 August Geib 11/12 Anna Roedig 21

1880: 52 Orchard Street, Geib, Adam age 49, lager Beer Saloon, Catherine, 39, Katie 15, Louis 12 August 10 Louisa 6

Adam Geib died 18 Febraury 1893

1890: Passport application Adam Geib bonr Gensingen, Germany 18 May 1831, age 58 , immigrated from Hamburg May 1861 occupation proprietor.

Clinton Garden

1863: The Swabian Saengerbund, a singing society, held their second annual masked ball at Geib's Clinton Garden.

the 1863: August 23, 3:00 P M Geib - New-Yorker Staats-Zeitung und Herold, 26 October 1863 (Music in Gotham)

1863: October 26, 1863 Flinton Garden Opening Ball, Geib - New-Yorker Staats-Zeitung und Herold, 26 October 1863 (Music in Gotham)

1864: 26 June concert Geib - New-Yorker Staats-Zeitung und Herold, 26 October 1863 (Music in Gotham)


NLPL Digital collection Map undated

Walhalla Hall is the pink building shown at 50 52 Orchard street. As with most of the halls it takes up all of the available space on the lot.



NLPL Digital collection Map undated IMAGE ID 1648076

This map shows the Bowery between Canal and Bayard streets. On the West side of the Bowery are the Pacific Garden, The Atlantic Garden and the Bowery Theater. On the East side are the German Theater and the New York Stadt Theater.


The Atlantic Garden

One of the most famous German beer halls was the Atlantic Garden on the Bowery.

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Celebrating the Capitulation of Sedan at the "Atlantic Garden" Harpers Weekly. April 1871

Atlantic Garden, located at 50 Bowery between Canal and Bayard Streets, was a great hall where people, especially the Germans, went with their families (wives and children) to drink beer and listen to music. The Atlantic Gardens were next door to the Bowery Theater, a variety house that became a center for German Theater in the late 1870s. The Volks Garden (Deutsches Volksgarten), a rival to the Atlantic Gardens was across across the street.

Other beer gardens in the area were Nieblo's Saloon, Magar's Concert Hall, and Lindenmeyer's Odeon. The Atlantic Garden boasted several bars, a shooting gallery, bowling alleys, billiard tables and an orchestra. See Germans Immigrants to America

The original owners of the Garden, opened in May 1858, were partners, Albert Hambrecht, Adolph Goetz and William Kramer. William Kramer became sole owner in 1871. They opened the Atlantic Garden in a tent. For the first few years it was closed in the winter. About 1865 the tent was taken down and a building was erected. Around the same time an orchestrion was purchased from the Grand Duke of Baden and installed in the Garden. In 1866 the partners started the Oriental Brewery. The partnership was disolved in 1871 with Kramer taking over the Gardens. In 1874 Kramer bought the Old Bowery Theater for $160,000. Two years later he opened the Thalia Theater. Over the years the Garden was enlarged extending through to Elizabeth street (200 feet deep).

One of the attractions of the Garden was the all female orchestra which was introduced about 1873. A lot of vaudeville actors and comedians got their start in the Atlantic Garden/Thalia Theater.

William Kramer passed the property on to his sons, Albert and William in 1897 - a famous $1,000,000 New Years Day Gift.

By 1909 the Thalia was a Yiddish theater. In 1911 the Garden closed and it was proposed to build a large office building. That did not go through. By 1916 the Atlantic Garden was deserted. The assest value of the property was $420,000 but the Kramer brothers were hoping to get $800,000. Another article said the building went into foreclosure in March 1916. Unpaid taxes amounted to $108,000. The city assessed the value at $168,000. whatever the true, the value had dropped precipitously since the grand old days.

In 1874 the Atlantic Garden Vienna Female Orchestra gave a concert despite the Sunday Blue Laws. William Kramer was one of several beer hall owners who met with the Police commissioner in 1874 about the Sunday Blue Laws.

In 1878 on November 3rd the Atlantic Garden was crowed with at least 1,500 people mainly Germans with their families including young children making a "respectable and orderly assembly".

"The room is about 50x100 with balconies, bars, billards, and shooting galleries. The prices of admission range from 15 cents upward. Te place is filled with tables. Uncounted kegs of beer was consumed, as well as large quantities of cigars. The visitors sat at the tables drinking an smoking, while a vocal and instrumental concert by the Vienna Lady Orchestra was given. Some of the selection was operatic, and rendered with skill. Two selections where in the main from Strauss, Levy, Offenbach, Rossini, Flotow, Hermann and Wiegand."
Male an female solist performed. The waiters were all male and some could carry 20 glasses of beer at once.

In 1885 the building was described as two storied with an attic and an L shaped extension running through to Elizabeth street. It had a glass roof.

In 1892 in an article on the Bowery for The Century Julian Ralph described it thus:

It is throughly German, from the dishes served on the counter near the door to the music played by the orchestra within, or the well salted pretzels that are consumed with the beer. It is simply a large hall a block in depth, partly surrounded by a gallery, and set with chairs and tables. Its decorations are neither good, bad, nor costly. Its purpose is to afford a place in which an hour can be passed in talking, drinking beer and listening to music of a band by night and of a huge orchestrion by day."

When the theater was changed into a Yiddish Vaudeville Theater in 1910 the New York Times wrote:

"The Atlantic Garden is a large hall which extends from 50 Bowery to Elizabeth Street. In the front is a barroom and in the rear a concert hall with a stage, where vaudeville performances went on while the patrons ate and drank at tables. In 1858, when it was first opened, it was in the centre of what was the popular section for the better class of of Germans. To the east was the district where the Irish centered."
Matthew Hale Smith described the Beer Gardens thus in 1868:
"These immense establishments, patronized by the Germans, are located in the Bowery. They will hold from a thousand to fifteen hundred persons. The Atlantic Gardens will seat comfortably, up stairs and down, one thousand. All day on Sunday they are filled. People are coming and going all the while. The rooms are very neat, and even tastefully fitted up, as all German places of amusement are. The vilest of them have a neatness and an attractiveness not found among any other nation. The music is first class. A piano, harp, violin, drums, and brass instruments, are played by skilful performers. The Germans visit these gardens to spend the day. They are eminently social. They come, husband and wife, with all the children, brothers and sisters, cousins and neighbors; nor are the old folks omitted. The family bring with them a basket of provisions, as if they were on a picnic. Comfortable rooms are provided for their entertainment. They gather as a family around a table. They exchange social greetings, and enjoy to their bent the customs of their fatherland. They play dominoes, cards, dice; they sing, they shout, they dance; in some places billiards and bowling are added, with rifle shooting. The room and entertainment are free to all. A welcome is extended to every comer. The long bar, immense in extent, tells the story. Here the landlord, his wife, and may be his daughters, with numerous waiters, furnish the lager beer which sustains the establishment . The quantity sold in a day is enormous. A four-horse team from the brewery, drawing the favorite beverage, finds it difficult to keep up the supply. A large portion of the visitors are young lads and girls. Those who serve out the beer are girls from twelve to sixteen years old, dressed in tawdry array, with short dresses, red-topped boots with bells attached; they are frowzy, have an unwholesome look, with lines of lasciviousness furrowed on their young faces. So immensely profitable is the sale of lager beer in these gardens, that the proprietors are willing to pay at any time five hundred dollars to any large association who will spend the day on their premises."

(Sunshine and shadow in New York By Matthew Hale Smith, 1868)

William Kramer

On New Year's Day 1897 William Kramer made a gift of his properties at the Atlantic Garden and the Thalia Theater, valued at about $1,000,000 to his sons, Albert and William. Both sons had been working with their father for several years.

In July 1900 William Kramer one of the founders of the Atlantic Gardens died at his home at 534 West 152nd street after a lingering illness. His wife had died a short time before and he grieved about her death.

William Kramer was born July 28, 1834 in Sinshein Baden, Germany. He arrived in the US with no money, no family and no friends. He once worked as a waiter at a Division street lager beer saloon for $1.50 a week. He worked a series of odd jobs including cook and bartender at the Volk's Theater where he met his future partners, Albert Hambrecht and Adolph Goetz.

He left two sons, Albert and William and four daughters: Mrs. Katherine Jacobina Schmidt, Mrs Ida C. K. Ettlinger, Mrs Elizabeth C Pfeiffer and Mrs. Jacobina Neumann. The four daughters were not happy with the will and contested it saying their father was of unsound mind when he made the will. His will left the Atlantic Gardens to his two sons and $25,000 to each of his daughters. The residue of his estate was to be divided equally in 6 parts. The sons could get the money outright but the daughters could not. Their shares were held in trust and they were to receive only the income from the trust. The did not dispute the inheritance of the Gardens by the sons, but found fault with the fact that the could not access their part of the residue of the estate.

By 1916 Albert and William Kramer were seeking to sell the properties. At that time the value of the Thalia was estimated to be $250,000. Elizabeth, Katherine and Jacobina were apposed to the sale.

1880: 164 East Housten street, William Kramer 45, born Prussia, keeps lager saloon, Margaret Kramer 40 Catherin Kramer 19 Elizabeth Kramer 17 Albert Kramer 14


New York Public Library


New York Public Library - 1857 to 1862 map

The large green structure is the Bowery Theater. The white space (which indicates open space) is labeled Atlantic Garden. There is a brick structure at the front of the property. Next to it is a property with a wooden structure on the Bowery and a white space behind. This is labeled Pacific Garden. On the corner of Canal and Bowery the brown building is the Citizen's Bank. The color indicates that is was constructed of stone. The building that currently stands at this spot was built in 1924.


New York Public Library 1885 map


New York Public Library - 1927

The building with the white columns is the theater. To the right of the theater the white building with the 6 windows is the Atlantic Garden.


New York Public Library, ID 805623

The Atlantic Garden C. New York City Life 1872


Sunday Blue Laws

Some of the images of the interiors of the old beer halls come from articles that railed against the German habit of going to the halls and singing and drinking on a Sunday afternoon - the Lord's Day. With a temperance message to impart they focused on the supposed seamier side of the experience - depicting children drinking, drunkenness and sexual forwardness.

Click on image for more on the Temperance movement.

New York Public Library, ID 809958

A BROADWAY SUNDAY CONCERT IN NEW YORK

HARPER'S WEEKLY OCTOBER 8, 1859

As many of these engravings illustrate there was a tendency to look upon the German custom of spending Sunday evening in a Beer Garden as something rather wicked. The Puritanical Protestant upper class American highly disproved of the idea of drinking, singing, dancing on the "Lord's Day". Liquor laws were instituted which tried to curb Sunday drinking.

"Owing to various causes, the safeguards of the Sabbath became inoperative, and a rapid declension in public order and morals on that, as on other days, took place. From the period, thirty years since, when no police was needed or kept on Sunday, the degeneracy became so considerable as to involve a large excess of drunkenness and crime on that day above the other days of tho week; thousands of dram shops disobeying by common consent the law requiring a license for their traffic on all days, took special license to drug the people on the Lord's day. Scores of theatres and beer gardens, scarcely self-supporting on week days, were crowded and profitable on Sunday. "Concert halls" and saloons in the most prominent thoroughfares of the city, attracted thoughtless youths by scandalous songs, dances and plays, and by flaring advertisements of "Pretty waiter girls" - women of the town, publicly kept and advertised. The system was a disgrace to civilization and a mockery to virtue and religion.

(Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York, Volume 5 By New York (State). Legislature. Assembly, 1861)


New York Public Library, ID 805496

A GERMAN BEER GARDEN IN NEW YORK CITY ON SUNDAY EVENING

Harpers Weekly October 15, 1859

Notice the women on the right with a baby and small child, who both appear to be drinking beer.


The Illustrated London News, December 3, 1864, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

A GARTEN WIRTHSCHAFT

Notice the woman on the left with a baby and small children. There is also a man to the right of the two men standing who is holding a child in his lap. I assume it is a child carrying steins of beer on the right.


The Illustrated London News, December 3, 1864, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

ENTERTAINMENT IN A LAGER BEER SALOON


The Graphic February 10, 1877, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Accompanying text:

"The 'Beer Gardens' are very much in the style of the beer gardens in Germany, and of our English tea gardens. The hall shown in the sketch is the famed Bowery, the Whitchapel of New York. It is large and most elaborately decorated, daily concerts of no mean order, both vocal and instrumental, being provided for the entertainment of guests. The saloon has a large brewery attached for the brewing of "Weiss' and 'Larger' beer. On Sunday the Halle is always crowed with Tutonic customers, and although the law is supposed to enforce the closing of all drinking saloon, it is reported that enough money is taken in on Sunday night to pay the whole week's expenses".

EVERY SATURDAY AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF CHOICE READING, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

A LARGER-BEER SALOON IN NEW YORK — DISCUSSING THE WAR*

*The 1870 War (or the Franco-Prussian War) which lasted from from July 1870 to May 1871 was a war between France and Prussia. The end of the war marked the unification of the Germany Empire and the downfall of Napoleon III.


The Christian Weekly Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

SUNDAY "SOCIAL FREEDOM" IN THE BOWERY

There were a lot of "native Americans" who highly disapproved of the action of the "German Americans". This group of Sunday sinners, including the fellow who appears to be sneaking off to play golf, were probably having much too jolly a time.

A SACRED CONCERT

Our illustration presents none too vividly the sacred influence of a Sunday Evening Concert, which the foes of "puritanical tyranny" and "sumptuary legislation" propose to substitute for the Sabbath Evening services of the sanctuary, or the equally sacred services of the home circle. To the special pleading of would-be reformers, self-constituted emancipationists, and theatrical managers, and newspaper writers, for more recreation and less religion on the Sabbath. We need only reply, by pointing out the actual kind of sacred (!) diversions proposed. Do the fathers and mothers of the land want this sort of attraction to allure their sons on Sabbath evening from the ways of purity, truth, and righteousness?

Last Sabbath there were seven "Sacred Concert" and theatrical performances in New York. The "Herald" graphically describes the scenes of jollity and fun, and in a semi-justification of the Sabbath observances in this city, owing to the "peculiar wants" of its population says "the greatest of these wants is liberty, and for that reason the public insists that sunday shall be a day of social freedom." And yet the divine law stands unrepealed, "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy."


New York Public Library, ID 809535

A typical New York beer-garden (1900)


New York Public Library, ID 833655

A MODEL SCHOOL AMONG THE GERMANS

ERSTER SPRECHER. "The School which we now have formed here in Orchard Street, in accordance with our Charter, Gentlemen (drinks!), will show the enervated American what a miserable farce their System of Education is. Looking around this assemlby of blooming, enlightened Young Men, I feel that German Education is now, as ever, the cradle of pure action, enobling sentiment, strong itellect, and manly courage, which accopanies, the German wherever, he goes, and commands the respect of every civilized nation on the face of the earth" (Drinks — immense applause!?)

Harper's Weekly

New York Public Library, ID800483

A GERMAN INSTITUTION (1871)


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

This image mailed from Germany in 1902 gives a much more elegant twist on the German smoking and drinking habits. It was sent to Mr. and Mrs Joseph Griesedieck at the National Brewery Co. in St Louis Mo.

See Griesedieck Brothers Beer


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

"GENTLEMEN'S SALLON, ACADEMY OF MUSIC — LAGER BIER SCENE, BETWEEN THE ACTS OF THE OPERA, PERFORMED IN TURN BY THE WHOLE MALE AUDIENCE"

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Oct 11, 1856


Museum of the City of New York, 2013

Niblo's Garden N. Y. City Demolished 1895

See Theaters


Beer Gardens Stadt Theatre from "Lights and Shadows of New York Life: or, the Sights and Sensations of the Great City" by James Dabney McCabe, 1872:
" XLV. THE BEER-GARDENS.

In some respects, New York is as much German as American. A large part of it is a genuine reproduction of the Fatherland as regards the manners, customs, people, and language spoken. In the thickly settled sections east of the Bowery the Germans predominate, and one might live there for a year without ever hearing an English word spoken. The Germans of New York are a very steady, hard-working people, and withal very sociable. During the day they confine themselves closely to business, and at night they insist upon enjoying themselves. The huge Stadt Theatre draws several thousand within its walls whenever its doors are opened, and concerts and festivals of various kinds attract others. But the most popular of all places with this class of citizens is the beer-garden. Here one can sit and smoke, and drink beer by the gallon, listen to music, move about, meet his friends, and enjoy himself in his own way--all at a moderate cost.

From one end of the Bowery to the other, beer-gardens abound, and their brilliantly illuminated signs and transparencies form one of the most remarkable features of that curious street. Not all of them are reputable. In some there is a species of theatrical performance which is often broadly indecent. These are patronized by but few Germans, although they are mainly carried on by men of that nationality. The Rough and servant girl elements predominate in the audiences, and there is an unmistakably Irish stamp on most of the faces present.

The true beer-garden finds its highest development in the monster Atlantic Garden, which is located in the Bowery, next door to the Old Bowery Theatre. It is an immense room, with a lofty curved ceiling, handsomely frescoed, and lighted by numerous chandeliers and by brackets along the walls. It is lighted during the day from the roof. At one side is an open space planted with trees and flowers, the only mark of a garden visible. A large gallery rises above the floor at each end. That at the eastern or upper end is used as a restaurant for those who desire regular meals. The lower gallery is, like the rest of the place, for beer-drinkers only. Under the latter gallery is a shooting hall, which is usually filled with marksmen trying their skill. On the right hand side of the room is a huge orchestrion or monster music-box, and by its side is a raised platform, occupied by the orchestra employed at the place. The floor is sanded, and is lined with plain tables, six feet by two in size, to each of which is a couple of benches. The only ornaments of the immense hall are the frescoes and the chandeliers. Everything else is plain and substantial. Between the hall and the Bowery is the bar room, with its lunch counters. The fare provided at the latter is strictly German, but the former retails drinks of every description.

During the day the Atlantic does a good business through its bar and restaurant, many persons taking their meals here regularly. As night comes on, the great hall begins to fill up, and by eight o'clock the place is in its glory. From three to four thousand people, mainly Germans, may be seen here at one time, eating, drinking, smoking. Strong liquors are not sold, the drinks being beer and the lighter Rhine-wines. The German capacity for holding beer is immense. An amount sufficient to burst an American makes him only comfortable and good humored. The consumption of the article here nightly is tremendous, but there is no drunkenness. The audience is well behaved, and the noise is simply the hearty merriment of a large crowd. There is no disorder, no indecency. The place is thoroughly respectable, and the audience are interested in keeping it so. They come here with their families, spend a social, pleasant evening, meet their friends, hear the news, enjoy the music and the beer, and go home refreshed and happy. The Germans are very proud of this resort, and they would not tolerate the introduction of any feature that would make it an unfit place for their wives and daughters. It is a decided advantage to the people who frequent this place, whatever the Temperance advocates may say, that men have here a resort where they can enjoy themselves with their families, instead of seeking their pleasure away from the society of their wives and children.

[Picture: THE ATLANTIC GARDEN.]

The buzz and the hum of the conversation, and the laughter, are overpowering, and you wander through the vast crowd with your ears deafened by the sound. Suddenly the leader of the orchestra raps sharply on his desk, and there is a profound silence all over the hall. In an instant the orchestra breaks forth into some wonderful German melody, or some deep-voiced, strong-lunged singer sends his rich notes rolling through the hall. The auditors have suddenly lost their merriment, and are now listening pensively to the music, which is good. They sip their beer absently, and are thinking no doubt of the far-off Fatherland, for you see their features grow softer and their eyes glisten. Then, when it is all over, they burst into an enthusiastic encore, or resume their suspended conversations.

On the night of the reception of the news of Napoleon's capitulation at Sedan, the Atlantic Garden was a sight worth seeing. The orchestra was doubled, and the music and the songs were all patriotic. The hall was packed with excited people, and the huge building fairly rocked with the cheers which went up from it. The "German's Fatherland" and Luther's Hymn were sung by five thousand voices, hoarse or shrill with excitement. Oceans of beer were drunk, men and women shook hands and embraced, and the excitement was kept up until long after midnight. Yet nobody was drunk, save with the excitement of the moment.

The Central Park Garden, at the corner of Seventh avenue and Fifty-ninth street, is more of an American institution than the Atlantic. It consists of a handsome hall surrounded on three sides by a gallery, and opening at the back upon grounds a moderate size, tastefully laid out, and adorned with rustic stalls and arbors for the use of guests. At the Atlantic the admission is free. Here one pays fifty cents for the privilege of entering the grounds and building. During the summer months nightly concerts, with Saturday matinees, are given here by Theodore Thomas and his famous orchestra--the finest organization of its kind in America. The music is of a high order, and is rendered in a masterly manner. Many lovers of music come to New York in the summer simply to hear these concerts.

The place is the fashionable resort of the city in the summer. The audience is equal to anything to be seen in the city. One can meet here all the celebrities who happen to be in town, and as every one is free to do as he pleases, there is no restraint to hamper one's enjoyment. You may sit and smoke and drink, or stroll through the place the whole evening, merely greeting your acquaintances with a nod, or you may join them, and chat to your heart's content. Refreshments and liquors of all kinds are sold to guests; but the prices are high. The Central Park Garden, or, as it is called by strangers, "Thomas's Garden," is the most thoroughly enjoyable place in the city in the summer."


A LAGER BEER BREWERY AT GUTTENBURG, ON THE HUDSON RIVER

On the top floor of this brewery in Guttenberg, New Jersey was "a spacious hall containing billiard-tables, a piano, and bar for lager beer and the pleasant vintages of the Rhien"

The Illustrated London News, December 3, 1864, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck


On the other hand, images of Beer Gardens in Germany tend to be less exploitive of the seamier side of the beer garden. See Germany Customs

The Temperance Movement

For early pictures representing the Temperance Movement in New York City


For more information on the Goehles and related families go to Goehle Introduction Page

To see images of life in the tenements of lower Manhattan go to Tenement life

For more information on the Meckels and some additional great photos go to Meckel

To see images of children on the Lower East Side and for information on education, child labor and other issues see Children of the Tenements

88 and 90 Sheriff Street were addresses that were written about in the press for a number of years. My grandfather, Frank Goehle, was born at 88 sheriff Street in 1894. 88 - 90 Sheriff Street, Lower East Side, Manhattan as a Microcosm of Little Germany (Kleindeutchland)

New York City, Information and Images

Shopping and Street Venders

The German Theater

Actors in the German Theater

Survices and Utilities in New York City

Trollies, Cars, Subways, Buses and Boats in New York City

James Dabney McCabe Jr 1842-1883

Kleindeutschland Streets

German Social Organizations

Life in Germany

Catherine Furst, Julius Lindemann, Peter Goehle, Henry Blanck, the Erxmeyers, the Petermanns were among the millions of German American immigrants. For images of life in Germany, click on the picture of the wooden shoes


Germans in America

Catherine Furst, Julius Lindemann, Peter Goehle, Henry Blanck, the Erxmeyers, the Petermanns were among the millions of German American immigrants. For information on and images of the German American in United States click on the image of the German American Family


May 1st Moving Day in NYC

May 1st was a day when many leases, both commercial and residential, expired. Consequently the city was jammed with moving wagons.


General Slocum Fire 1904

On June 15, 1904 the excursion boat, SS General Slocum caught fire on the East River resulting in the death of over 1,000 persons, mostly women and children. It was the biggest disaster in New York City until 9/11.


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© Maggie Land Blanck - page created 2008 - latest update, September 2015