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Some Ballenrobe Landlords

My ancestors lived in Ballenrobe before emigrating to New York City in the 1880/90s.

The two biggest landlords in the sections of Ballinrobe where the Walsh and Langan families lived were the Kenny family and the Knox family. In addition to renting a house and/or land from the Knox and Kenny families, these were the people who were potential employers of the Walsh and Langan families.

In fact, John Walsh was a steward for the Kenny family.

Three unpopular landlords in the area were, Lord Lucan, Lord Mountmorris and Captain Boycott. See Lord Lucan and Lord Mountmorris below. See Captain Boycott at Captain Boycott



The Kenny family

Originally Catholics who later converted to Protestantism, the Kenny family established themselves in Ballinrobe in 1740. For several generations the Kennys owned and managed a large estate plus a flour mill, located on Bridge Street in Ballinrobe.

Landed Estates Database:

"A family established in the Ballinrobe area, barony of Kilmaine, county Mayo, from the late 17th century. They held land from the Earls of Lucan, the Ruttledges, the Cuffs and later from the Knoxes of Creagh. They were also involved in the brewing and milling industries in the town of Ballinrobe. They lived at Rocksborough, a short distance outside the town during the 18th century and then moved into their house, Robe Villa, in the town. In June 1855 Courtney Bermingham Kenny was granted a lease of Brendrum or Blakehill in the parish of Cong, county Galway by the Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. This property was advertised for sale in 1861 but the Irish Times reports that it was bought back by the owner for 1600. In 1876 Stanhope Kenny owned 598 acres in county Mayo. John Hearne was their agent from 1880s-1910. Most of their estate was vested in the Congested Districts' Board on 1 Dec 1913."
Estate Kenny with images of the Kenny properties.

In 1831 Courtney Kenny was listed as the captain of yeomanry and barrack master of Ballinrobe. (Parliamentary Papers House of Commons Vol. 8)

"A Topographic Dictionary of Ireland "by Samuel Lewis, written in 1837 listed the Kenny seat as follows:

Robe Villa is the seat of Courtney Kenny, Esq., in the demesne* of which, and on the bank of the river are the remains of the abbey"

The Analecta Hibernica #14 listed Luke Kenny on Glebe Street in Ballinrobe in 1783.

In the chapel at Cong in 1852 in the presence of Rev. Mr. Waldon and an assembled congregation Courtney Kenny magistrate for Mayo and "one of the largest landed proprietors" in Mayo, "professed" his faith to the "tenets of the Catholic religion" and was formally admitted to the Catholic Church. (The Waterford News, 13 February 1852)

In October 1859 Courtney Kenny of Ballinrobe was listed as a magistrate for Mayo (Freeman's Journal, Dublin)

Courtney Kenny, J. P. (1781-1863)

Birth: September 26, 1781, the son of

Courtney Kenny and Suzanna, daughter of Stanhope Mason.

Marriage: Louise, the daughter of William Fenton of Yorkshire, England, in 1816.

Children:

  1. Courtney b March 1818
    Died 1824

  2. George Frederick b June 1821
    Died 1826

  3. Stanhope William Fenton Kenny, J. P., B. A. (1827-1910)

    Birth: 1 July 1827

    Education: B. A. (1857) Trinity College Dublin

    Other: Stanhope William Fenton Kenny was J. P. for county Mayo, and Paymaster of 3rd Batt. Connaught Rangers.

    Marriage: December 4, 1867 Mary Ann daughter of Guy Lloyd, Croghan Roscommon, Booterstown, Dublin, Ireland

    Children:

    1. Courtney Kenny, born 22 Feb 1869, Kingstown Dublin, Ireland, father Stanhope Kenny mother Mary Lloyd

      Royal Military Academy Woolwich 1886-88 - Lieutenant, Royal Artillarey 1888 (Cheltenham College Register, 1841-1889 By Cheltenham College)

    2. Stanhope Lloyd 16 March 1874

      Marriage: Maeve French

      Died 1945 Jul-Aug-Sep age 71, Ballinrobe Ireland Death Index

    3. Suzanna Louisa Fenton Kenny 1 December 1872, Ballinrobe

    4. Lewis Fenton 21 July 1875

      Marriage: 06/09/1910 Lewis Fenton Kenny full age bachelor, solicitor, Dublin son of Stanhope William Fenton Kenny, gentleman, to Henrietta Nora Margaret Joy, spinster daughter of Robert Joy gentlemen

    Stanhope Kenny in the 1901 Census

    Stanhope Kenny, his daughter, and sister were the only Kennys listed in the 1901 Census in Ballinrobe as follows:

    1. Stanhope Kenny, widower, Church of Ireland, read and write, age 73, JP paymaster, formerly Rangers (?), born Mayo
    2. Susan Kenny, daughter, not married, age 28, born Mayo
    3. Louise Kenny, sister, age 75, single, born Mayo
    There were also three servants listed with them.

    Death of Stanhope Kenny: Jan-Feb-Mar 1910, age 82, Ballinrobe, page 29, Vol 4 LDS film 011604, Ireland, Civil Death Index

    Probate 1910 Kenny, Stanhope William Fenton 22 August late of Ballinrobe, County Mayo, who died 30 January 1910 granted at Dublin to John Merrick Lloyd Esquire and Lewis F. Kenny Solicitor Effects 27,982 pounds.

  4. Lewis Fenton b. 18 June 1831

    MISSING FRIENDS - 1867 (The Boston Pilot)

    Of Mr. Lewis Fenton Kenny, son of the late Courtney Kenny, Esq. of Ballinrobe, county Mayo, Ireland. He left New York in September 1859 for the State of New Jersey. From thence he intended to go West to purchase land, and has not been heard from since. Should any of his late father's tenants who may be in America happen to see this advertisement, they will oblige the family very much by making constant inquiries about him - as also any one else who may fell kindly interested - and forward any information they may have to Charles Hogan, care of the Planters' House, St. Louis, Mo.

  5. Sarah Louise

  6. Susan Anne

  7. Marie

  8. Caroline

    Marriage: June 2, 1864 at Ballinrobe, George Johnstone Darley, Esq. youngest son of the late Henry Darley, Esq. M. D. of Kildare street to Carolina youngest daughter of the late Courtney Kenny, Esq. Ballinrobe. (Irish People, Dublin)

Death of Courtney Kenny: Courtney Kenny died March 15, 1863. "KENNY, March 15, at his residence, Ballinrobe, Courtney Kenny, Esq., J.P., aged 81 years. The Irish Times

Stanhope Mason Kenny, born circa 1787, died in Ballinrobe age 78, in 1865.

1895: Mrs. Stanhope Kenny died and the Ballinrobe Union Board offered their condolences to Mr. Kenny a member of the board.

"DEATH OF MRS. STANHOPE KENNY - BALLINROBE. We publish today with deep regret tbe announcement of the death of Mrs. Kenny, the beloved and devoted wife of Stanhope W. F. Kenny, Esq., J.P., which occurred at her residence here on Tuesday evening. For a considerable time Mrs. Kenny had not been in perfect health, but since her return to Ballinrobe had slightly improved; unfortunately, about two months ago she met with a very serious accident, since when she has been quite prostrate. Nothing was left undone during her illness that medical skill and devoted affection could suggest, and her sufferings were borne, in a beautiful spirit of patient resignation to the will of tbe Almighty. Mrs. Kenny was a member of one of tbe oldest connty families in Roscommon, and had always been gentle aud retiring in manner, while her great charity and kindness of heart and her deep and solid piety had won her the esteem and regard of all who knew her. A devoted wife and mother, her family and home were the centre of her deepest affections, and widespread sympathy is felt for her afflicted husband aud fair young daughter in their sad and irreparable bereavement. Tbe business houses in town were shuttered since her death was made known on Wednesday morning and every mark of respect shown to her memory. The Funeral took place on yesterday. About 2:30 o'clock the remains were removed from her late residence and carried on the shoulders of the Liskillen tenantry and the towns people to tbe Protestant Church. The coffin was of polished Irish oak, richly mounted in brass, and covered with floral tributes of great beauty from the different members of her afflicted family and sympathising friends. The inscription on the shield was -------, Born 16th September, 1831. Died 6th November, 9. The chief mourners immediately followed tbe coffin.

Mr. S W F Kenny (husband), Mr Lewis F Kenny (son), Mr Blerrick Lloyd and Rev W R Lloy d (brothers), Mr. George J Darley and Rev Dr Streane (brothers-in-law). On arrival at the Church the remains were received by Very Rev Provost ----- , Rector, ond Rev J A Lendruro, B A , Curate. After tbe reading of the ----- burial service the coffin was placed in the family vault outside the church. Amongst those who formed tbe large and representative funeral procession were General Brow of the ----, Colnnel H J Knoz, Cranmore; Mr T S Martin, Bank of Ireland; Mr W Burke, J P; Mr Alexander Martyn, J P; Very Rev Dean Ronayne, P P*; Mr B Daly J P; Rev Henry Willson, Mr T W----- Walshe, J P; Mr J E Jackson, J P; Mr Simson, Rev T J Miller, Mr E R McCormick, Mr -----, Mr C James, Mr J ----- Hearne, Mr T Mcligae, Mr M Moran, Mr T Stanners, Mr R- Crawford, ---- H Hearn, Mr Cecil Walshe, Mr G U Potter, Mr J O'Neil Donnellon, jun; Mr James -----, Mr M Farraher, Dr E Maguire, Dr ------ , Dr M Sample, Mr J P Egan, Mr F Killkelly, Messrs P Valkenberg, J W and C Cunningham, J Valkenhurg, H Curley, WM Begao, C Mayoe, F Faby, P Murphy, P Morris, T Daly, &c.,.&c . Several gentlemen were unavoidable absent owing to Mrs FitzPatrick's funeral in Dublin same day. There were a number of carriages and other vehicles, inluding those of Col Knox , Creagh; Miss Knox Cranmore; Mrs Ruttledge Fair, Miss Elwood , Mrs I---, Mrs Rutherford, &c , &

Ballinrobe Chronicle November 9, 1895

*He was the parish priest of the Roman Catholic Church

Note: The Kenny genealogy can be found on line. I am mainly interested in the family as it may relate to my ancestor, John Walsh (1827-1894) who was a gardner and/or steward for the Kenny family from at least 1859 until 1894.

In 1857 the Kennys owned the townland of Lishkellen.

The County Mayo Chronicles (Volumes 1 through 13, March 1988 to March 1991, available at the New York City Public Library) listed:

  1. In April 1801, Miss Kenny , the daughter of Courtney Kenny of Co. Mayo married J Clark, Jr.
  2. In October 1802, Miss Kenny, the youngest daughter of Courtney Kenny, of Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo married William Griffith of Ballytwenan, Co. Sligo.

In the 1827 Tithe Applotment, C. Kenny Esq. was listed with:

  • 100 acres in Credoff (tax 7 pounds and 10 shillings)
  • 260 acres in Liskelleen (tax 16 pounds, 17 shilling and 6 pence)
  • 7 acres in Cahirnalecka (tax 4 shillings and 4 pence)
  • 14 acres in Hollyrood (tax 1 pound 14 shillings and 3 pence)
  • 15 acres in Knockanotish (tax 1 pound, 11 shillings and 10 pence)
  • 76 acres in Knockanotish (tax 5 pounds and 8 shillings)
  • 38 acres in Rathkelly (tax 2 pounds, 7 shillings and 3 pence)
  • This is a total of 510 acres that was directly under his name.

The 1857 Griffith Courtney Kenny was listed with:

  • Land, herd's house, office and 523 plus acres "in fee" in Liskilleen
  • Land, house and 14 plus acres in Liskilleen
  • Land, houses and 5 acres "in fee" in Liskilleen
  • House, no acreage in Cloogowla
  • 5 houses and 16 acres in the townland of Carrownalecka
  • Offices (dilapidated) with a yard, 3 houses with small gardens, one house with a yard, a forge, and a house with no yard or garden, (there is no acreage) on High street, Carrownalecka, in the Town of Ballinrobe
  • A house with a yard and small garden, a house with a yard, offices with a yard, (there is no acreage) on Chapel Road, Carrownalecka, Town of Ballinrobe
  • Land, house and 2 acres in the townland of Knockanotish
  • Land, caretakers's house, offices and 283 plus acres of land in the townland of Knockanotish
  • a house, no acreage, in the townland of Knockanotish
  • Flour mill, office and yard, no acreage, on High Street, Knockanotish, Town of Ballinrobe
  • 3 houses with yards, one house, and a house with offices and a yard, no acreage on High Street, Knockanotish, town of Ballinrobe
  • Constabulary (police), barrack, offices, and yard, no acreage on Bridge Street Friarsquarters, Town of Ballinrobe
  • 23 houses all with land (some with offices) and 172 acres in Cregduff
  • Two houses with offices and yards plus the Board of Public Works, offices, and yard on Market Street, Carnaroya, town of Ballinrobe

Note: There was no listing in 1857 for property in Hollyrood.

In addition to the house and mill in town, Courtney Kenny built a mansion in Liskelleen in 1862. Soon after building it, however, he decided to remain in his town house on Bridge Street. He subsequently rented the mansion to a number of people over the years.

In 1851 Courtney Kenny was the town Magistrate.

On a list of "Portions of County Mayo of Return of Owners of Land of One Acre and Upwards in Ireland 1876" from the County Mayo Chronicle #2, Stanhope Kenny of Ballinrobe was listed with 598 acres.

According to Bridie Mulloy,

" he wasn't an all-round popular man as his decisions in court were generally regarded as being over-harsh at a time when people, though guilty of agitation and of petty crimes, were too poor to pay even a moderate fine."
She adds that he was,
"highly regarded for his engineering skills and as an employer paid higher wages the most."

Historical Ballinrobe Robe Villan and Mill - Information and images.

*Demesne, pronounced di mayn [main], was an estate occupied by the owner rather than being rented out.

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The Knox Family

The Cuff family was granted an estate in Ballinrobe in 1655 from the Cromwellian Government. The property passed though various hands in the Cuff family until it was willed to Jane Cuff circa 1828. Jane Cuff was the wife of Colonel Nesbit Knox.

The Knox estate at Creagh Demesne was mentioned in the 1837 description of Ballinrobe by Lewis, see Ballinrobe.

Charles Nesbit Knox, born in 1817, married Lady Louisa Browne in 1840. Their son, Charles Howe Knox, was the first Knox to actually live in Ballinrobe.

  • According to Bridie Mulloy, the Knox family had a seven bedroom townhouse, Cranmore House, on the south end of Main Street, Ballinrobe. She says that the house was built in 1838 by Alexander Lambert on land he was renting from Colonel Knox. In 1849 Colonel Knox bought out the lease and the house remained in the Knox family until the late 1920s. The house now stands in ruins.
  • 1857 Griffith Valuation indicates that the Knox family was one of the biggest landholders in Ballinrobe parish at the time. In addition to numerous other properties, Colonel Charles Knox was listed in the 1857 Griffith Valuation in Creagh Demesne with 460 acres, house and offices.

  • Bridie Mulloy says Charles Howe Cuff Knox, Colonel of the Connaught Rangers, and High Sheriff for County Mayo probably arrived in County Mayo in the late 1860s.
  • According to the Ballinrobe Chronicle, Col. Charles Knox of Cranmore, born in 1817, the only son of Charles Nesbit Knox, died in March 1867. See Ballinrobe Chronicle

    Bridie Mulloy says that Colonel Charles Nesbit Knox is said to have

    "not been kindly disposed to either priests or people"
    He was, however, the person with whom Fr. Conway negotiated for the land for St. Mary's church circa 1840/50 and he was the person who "signed over the plot of ground" on which the church was built.

    (I don't know if that means he actually owned it or if he was the town official in charge.)

  • The second Colonel Knox, Charles Howe Cuff Knox, not satisfied with the existing house in town or the house already standing at Creagh Demesne, built a mansion called Creagh House on the Creagh Demesne in 1875.

On a list of "Portions of County Mayo of Return of Owners of Land of One Acre and Upwards in Ireland 1876" from the County Mayo Chronicle #2, Captain Charles Howe Knox of Ballinrobe was listed with 24,374 acres.

According to Bridie Mulloy, the Creagh estate employed a sizable staff from Cushlough and Carnalecka. She says,

"Their day was long, the huge bell in the yard was rung to summon them at 7.00 a.m. and again at 7.00 p.m. when thy were due to finish."

Pay was about 6 pence a day, except for more skilled workers.

According to Mulloy,

"it was an established fact that there was a good relationship, certainly in the later years between the Knox family and local tenantry and townspeople. Furthermore, the legacy of park, pasture and woodland which Colonel Knox left to Ballinrobe is now a great amenity to the town."
Creagh estate was planted with thousands of trees even before the mansion was built in 1875. "Exotic" species like, elm, beach, ash, chestnut, spruce, sycamore, apple, plum, cherry and pear were introduced. 2,896 trees were planted on Creagh Demesne before 1813. In 1827, 56,800 trees were planted there. Bridie Mulloy says that Col. Knox (she does not say which one) had a "special interest" in tree planting and ornamental trees lined the avenues leading to both the Creagh mansion and Cranmore house in town. She also says that he had a hugh garden at Creagh for fruit, vegetables and flowers. There were eight acres of orchard for apple, plum, cherry, and pear on the Creagh estate.

Birdie Mulloy makes an interesting reference to both Colonel Knox, Courtney Kenny, Carrownalecka and Knockanotish,

"Unless tenants had a lease on their properties they were very much at the mercy of the Landlord. As such, Colonel Knox is described as 'A fair minded man, who would not act with deliberate cruelty but being of the ruling class he had, under the inherited mores of the time, to be see to maintain control'. The best way to do this was to keep shifting tenants around- generally from a good area to a poor one, in case they might get ideas that they were entitled to a farm if there were left long enough there. (One of the harshest of these movements was when Courtney Kenny shifted tenants from the good land at Knochanothis to the rocks of Carnalecka during the famine years). "
Italics mine

Bridie Mulloy says that Col Knox left Ballinrobe towards the end of WW II.

June 1899: The Ballinrobe Board of Guardians condemned "in the strongest possible measure the action of Col. Knox in evicting several of his tenants around Glanhest and Ballinrobe."

James Howe Knox in the 1901 Census in Ballinrobe

James Howe Knox was listed in the 1901 census in Ballinrobe as follows:

  1. James Howe KnoX, age 58, Lieutenant Colonel, retired army, not married, born Dublin

There were also a cook, age 60, a ladies maid, age 70 (born in France), a parlor maid, age 25, a house maid, age 19 and a kitchen maid, age 18, listed in the household.

There were 13 outbuildings including 2 stables, coach house, harness room, cow house, calf house, dairy, fowl houses, turf house, potato house, workshop, shed, and laundry. There were no boiling house, piggery, barn, or forge.


Unpopular Mayo Landlords

Many large landowners in Ireland were non-residents. The land was in the hands of middlemen who leased it for life. These middlemen acted as agents for the landowners and had the freedom to subdivide and sublet the properties. They had no permanent interest in the property:

"their business was to make an income out of it at the least cost, and their immediate position severed the other wise natural connection between land lord and tenant".

Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, April 1880

In 1870 there were 2,973 absentee landlords in Ireland, Of these 180 were described as not usually resident but occasionally on the property. All the others were listed as rarely or never resident in Ireland.

The landlords and agents did little or nothing to improve the property. If the tenant made improvements to the property he ran the risk of having his rent raised.

There were also some very unpopular landlords who actually spent time on their estates such as Lord Lucan, one of the most infamous landlords in all of Ireland, Lord Mountmorris who was murdered in 1880 and Captain Boycott who became a household word due to an incident near Ballinrobe in 1880.


Lord Lucan (1800-1888), George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan

Lord Lucan (George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, born in London in 1800) owned estates near Castlebar and Ballinrobe, County Mayo, Ireland totaling 60,570 acres.

He was one of the most hated landlords in Ireland. Lord Lucan was made Lord Lieutenant of Mayo in 1845. He took part in the Battle of Balaclava famed for the poem, The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred Lord Tennyson.

Before the famine he was mainly an absentee landlord who made quick forays to Ireland and had little understanding of local issues, hated the Catholic clergy, and had little or no sympathy for his Irish tenants.

He was "a Bingham descended from Sir Richard Bingham's brother, George, Sir Richard being the gentleman who in Elizabeth I's time, first got possession of Cloonacastle from the Burkes". (The Bridge)

Three Bingham brothers, Richard, George, and John, distinguished themselves as soldiers of fortune in the reign of Elizabeth I. Richard Bingham (1528-1599), the eldest, became governor of Connacht in 1584. In September 1588, on hearing of the flight of the Spanish Armada to the North Sea, Richard Bingham ordered that any Spaniards shipwrecked or landed on the Irish Coast should have their throats cut. As many as 1,000 were put to death.

The Bingham family was known for its cruelty and warrior-like dispositions. The family seat in Ireland was at Castlebar. However, the Lucans were absentee landlords who did not even visit their estates. They were chiefly interested in the land in Ireland as a source of income. The property was managed by local land agents.

In need of more income George Bingham started to take an active interest in his Irish properties in 1837. He immediately got into arguments with his land agent, the local English garrison at Castlebar and others in the area.

As the effects of the Great Famine (1845-1848) became apparent and many tenants did not have the wherewithal to pay their rents some landlords acted with kindness by defraying the rents and even by giving money to their tenants. Lord Lucan, however, seized the opportunity to evict most of his tenants in an attempt to either find "some Englishman to take over the property as a single tenant" (The Bridge) or to improve the production of his land.

Note: There are stories on the Internet of what a good landlord Lucan was and how much he improved the situation for the tenants that remained.

Lucan believed that the only solution for Ireland was to reduce the population so the land could become productive and he was ruthless in attaining his goal.

He said he "would not breed paupers to pay priests" and became known as the Great Exterminator.

It is not known for certain how many tenants were evicted by Lucan near Ballinrobe during the famine years. "Fr. Conway, a tenant right meeting in Abbey Street in 1850 gives the number as "1,170" persons". (The Bridge)

Contemporary newspapers say that 180 families including 913 people were evicted in Castlebar in a period of 18 months and that 478 of these became a burden on the Union of Castlebar, 170 emigrated, and the fate of the remainder was death or unknown.

Lucan apparently did not care and gave little thought to what would happen to the evicted tenants. Some of his comments indicate that he did not even consider them as human beings.

Nor did he seem to care that the burden of supporting the people he had evicted might fall on other Anglo-Irish in the community or indeed on the English government (as many staving Irish emigrated to England). Once they were off his land it was not his problem.

See The Victorian Web Lord Lucan and the Potato Famine by Cecil Woodham Smith and George Charles Bingham, third Earl of Lucan (1800-1888) by Marja Bloy

The areas that were affected by the Lucan evictions were all to the east north/east of the town of Ballinrobe in the triangle formed by the roads to Tuam and Claremorris and including the townlands of: Ballynakillew, Cloonark, Cloonacastle, Cappacutty, Lavally, Ballinteeaun, Bawn, Caheredmond, Cavan, Knocknacroagha, Rathnaguppaun and Saleen. The village of Cloonark was completely in ruins. Some tenants were able to remain: two in Lavalley three in Bawn, and 2 at Caheredmond, and one at Ballinakillew. (The Bridge)

The largest numbers of evictions were in: Cavan with 34 tenants, Knocknacroagha with 20 tenants and Lavally with 20 tenants.

The crowbar brigades did a very thorough job to assure that there was nothing left to "make it impossible for the tenant to linger about his old home". (The Bridge)

It also appears that although in one sense Lucan did not give a damn about what happen to his tenants and who would be responsible for supporting them he didn't want it to be himself. He had his estates in the area transferred from Ballinrobe district to Hollymount district so he ended up paying lower rates in Hollymount instead of higher rates in Ballinrobe due to the increased number of paupers in the area. As Chairman of the Castlebar Poor Union he closed the Castlebar workhouse in 1847 and was one of the several debtors who owed money to the poor rate.

In a letter from Rev. Fr. Peter Conway dated Ballinrobe, Friday 26 1848 and published in the Mayo Telegraham June 7, 1848 Conway said the 16 cottages at Lavally adjacent to the Lavally House were neat but are now a complete ruin having been tumbled down. The "inmates" of these cottages were now "stretched on scraws and on the side of the road". (The Bridge)

Lord Lucan's men appear to have been doing more than their duty of evicting the tenants and leveling the houses. They also beat one "poor woman" in Lavally who was trying to protect her "three children in measles" by leaving them in the house and they burned the furniture and bedding of Darby Ronane of Cavan. (The Bridge)

Apparently most of those evicted were not eligible for government assistance and in the next week at least 80 families went to Conway seeking aid in finding shelter. He told them to return to their houses and

"endeavour to shelter themselves and bear patiently with their cruel treatment".

(The Bridge)

In 1856 Lucan found a tenant, James Simpson, who paid £ 2,200 for a 25 year lease on the the acreage near Ballinrobe. Simpson apparently ran a model farm, paid his workers well (by the local standards) and made many improvements on the property. At the end of the lease Simpson had a major law-case against Lord Lucan asking compensation for improvements he had made on the property during his tenancy. Lucan denied the claim. Simpson won in the lower courts but Lucan appealed again and again until he "won out in an appeal to The House of Lords, of which he was a member". (The Bridge)

Lucan was also a senior office at Balaclava in the Ukraine in the 1854 battle that pitted British French and Turkish troops against the Imperial Russia army near Sebastopol in the Crimea. It was the scene of the Charge of the Light Brigade made famous by Tennyson's poem of the same name. The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson

While the British claimed the battle as a victory it was in fact a defeat. The Russians captured seven guns and held their ground.

It was a complicate battle and series of events that led up to the infamous charge are well told with illustration at British Battles.com .

It is universally accepted by military historians that Lord Lucan was to some degree responsible for the disaster of the charge of the Light Brigade which resulted in 163 dead and 181 wounded.

"Lucan was irked by being the butt of criticism at the inaction of the cavalry and was disinclined to delay further action. He rode over to Cardigan and directed him to charge the Russian cavalry and guns at the end of the North Valley. After a brief remonstration Cardigan ordered his brigade to mount and led it forward into the valley. Lucan added a final irritant for Cardigan by ordering the 11th Hussars, Cardigan's regiment, into the second line."
Lord Lucan followed with the Heavy Brigade, but a short distance into the advance, as the scale of fire became apparent, he halted the brigade and left the Light Brigade to continue down the valley alone.

Lucan

"refused to accept one iota of blame. Shortly afterwards Lucan was relieved of his command and recalled to England, where he lived a full life. He received the Field-Marshall's baton in 1887. He died in '88 at the ripe age of 88." (The Lucans of Lalehame)
Lucan's son, the forth earl of Luncan, seems to have been a more humane individual than his father. At his death in 1908 at his estate near Castlebar his death "was received by the people of Castlebar with feeling of deep regret" and
"it is admitted on all sides that Lord Lucan was one of the most generous of the landed proprietors in Ireland, and it has been often said that if other men of his standing emulated his kindly manner towards his tenantry agitation on the land in question in Ireland would be a mythe.....He was always on the most friendly terms with his tenants, and there was never a harsh eviction since he succeeded to the estate."

(The Lucans of Lalehame)

Most of the information about the evictions near Ballinrobe was take from The Farm and the Lucan Eviction 1847-50 (Letter of Rev Fr Peter Conway And Petitions of the Tenants) from the Bridge. John Doherty emailed me a copy of The Bridge in October 2005.

Lord Lucan's main seat in Ireland was in Castlebar. The Lucan home, called Castlebar House, was burned in 1798. I get the impression the family later resided in a small lodge know as "The Lawn" or "Summer House" that was located on the estate. The Ordnance Surey Field Name Books of the 1830s listed it as the residence of St. Clair O"Malley, who was an agent of Lord Lucan. The location was near the intersection of Lucan Street and Lawn Rd.

Lucan Estates and the Royal Commission on Congestion in Ireland

Testimony of James (Canon) Stephens parish Priest of Ballinrobe 1908:

I most respectfully submit to this Commission that the parish of Ballinrobe ought to be scheduled as congested. In the parish there are more than 4,000 acres of grass lands fattening bullocks up to the very walls of the town. Face to face with this state of things we have hundreds of families huddled together on worthless wastes and sour outskirts in poverty and squalor. I take for my argument the Kilmaine section of the Bingham Estate, recently purchased by the Congested Districts Board. On this estate there are 2,374a. 2r. 5p. in the hands of three farmers. Round about, on the rocks, in the bogs, through the scrub, there are over sixty families on holdings broken up into 707 separated patches. In the village of Cregduff there are twenty families perched upon a few acres of black rock, their holdings scattered around in 353 separate patches. In Cloonerneen, eighteen families are planted in the bog reclaimed by themselves and their fathers, counting 127 separated patches. In Rosslaura, once a peninsula, in the bog, there are eleven families. A large sheet might cover their dwelling-places, and they pay rent for 169 separated patches, chiefly of bog reclaimed by themselves......

The occupiers of the outskirts are the evicted tenants of the heart of the estate or the heirs of those who witnessed the horrors of the clearance, and they live in hope and bless the providence of God in the reversal of the "plantation scheme" of the Famine Days.....

It belongs now to the Congested Districts Board. It did belong to the Earl of Lucan, and it was sold last year to the Congested Districts Board. In the immediate neighbourhood of the town of Ballinrobe within a mile or a mile and a half of the town, I think. It is the Kilmaine section of the Bingham Estate, sold last year to the Congested Districts Board - at what price I do not know.........

More on the Lucans

See also Castlebar and Ballinrobe

Note: Another infamous Lucan was the 7th Earl, Richard John Bingham born in 1934 - AKA John. Known as Lucky Lucan he was professional gambler. Heavily in debt and estranged from his wife he disappeared on November 8, 1974 after his children's nanny, Sandra Rivett, was found murdered. He was declared guilty of the murder in absentia. A British judge declared Lucan legally dead in 1999 allowing some estate issues to be resolved. In 2014 Lucan's son, George Charles Bigham asked the court to issue a death warrant so he could become the 8th Earl of Lucan. In Febraury 2016 the court declared Richard John Bingham dead again after the son of the nanny withdrew his objections. There is lots on the Internet about this Lord Lucan. His titles were: Earl of Lucan; Baron Lucan of Castlebar; Baron Lucan of Melcombe Lucan and Baronet Bingham of Castlebar.


Lord Lucan age 22

The Third Earl

This image is available on several web sites.


Lord Lucan

The Third Earl



Lord Mountmorres

Lord Mountmorres another major landholder in the parish, was murdered in September 1880 near Clunbur, Galway partly because he was such an unpopular landlord. See The Ballinrobe Chronicles and Land Issues



Captain Boycott

The word, Boycott, meaning to join with others in refusing to have any dealings with some other individual or group, is derived from an incident that occurred near Ballinrobe in 1880.

Captain Charles Cunningham Boycott was an unpopular English landlord who moved to the Ballinrobe area in 1873 where he became an agent on the nearly one thousand five hundred acres estate of Lord Erne. When Boycott attempted to evict some of his tenants he was met with social and economic isolation that turned into an international incident.

For more information and pictures about Captian Boycott see Boycott and Land Issues



Lord Erne

Captain Boycott was the agent of the 3rd Earl of Erne (1802-1885) also known as, John Creighton (the family name was later changed to Crichton).

The family had estates all over Ireland.

For more information on the Lords of Erne See Crom Castle


Lady Evelyn Crichton, daughter of Lord Erne, 1897

She must have been the grandaughter of the 3rd Earl.

Quite a difference between the "Lady" Crichton and the ladies of the peasant class. See People


The Nolans, Early Landlords

In October 2005 Nolan family descendant, Glenn Nolen, emailed the following information on the Nolan family in Ballinrobe:

My Nolan family purchased Creagh Castle in 1582 and apparently were the owners of Creagh Castle and the Castle at Ballinrobe until 1653 when confiscated by the Cromwellian Government.

The below information is from my site 1,000 Years of O'Nolan History: Nolan Ancestry

"Before proceeding further it is necessary to explain the apparent absence of Creagh from the List of Castles of 1574. It and Coslough were divided from one another by the river Robe and both, it is believed, were MacTibbot Bourke manors as we will now endeavour to show.

The Norman ruler who set up in Ballinrobe about 1236-7 would not have been content, in peaceful times, without a country residence. Creagh was an ideal position, in that a castle in the demesne would be only a mile from Ballinrobe and yet within a short distance from Lough Mask. The triangle of which the mouth of the Robe to Keel bridge is the base, and Ballinrobe the apex, was occupied by the O'Gormly tribe in pre-Norman times and they appear to have been transplanted about 1236. We may reasonably contend therefore that the Creagh site was available and selected for what we might call a suburban residence of the ruler of Kilmaine in the Norman period.

G. V. Martyn continues with the next entry in the 1574 List of Castles to which we must draw attention is that Walter MacTibbot had Crigh. Knox argues that Crigh is Creevagh in the parish of Kilmolara. To show that this is in error we must quote the following evidence:

(i). Knox (a) p. 205-MacTibbot's Castle of the Crigh.
(b) p. 284-MacTibbot's Castle of the Crich or Criche.
(ii). Composition-THOMAS NOLAN got Creevagh.
(iii). Strafford's Survey-THOMAS NOLAN at Cryah.
(iv). Hardiman's Note, p. 251 in Iar-Connacht.-Creevagh is Creagh and was forfeited by the NOLAN'S in Cromwell's time and acquired by James Cuff.
"It would thus appear that in 1574 Walter MacTibbot's Castle of Crigh* was that of Creagh. He sold it to THOMAS NOLAN in 1582." This quote is from the Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, JGAHS, Vol. XIII. (1925), Nos. I and II. Random Notes on the History of County Mayo by G. V. Martyn, 83-100.

2 July 1607 - THOMAS NOLAN, described as "of Ballinrobe" got a grant by patent from King James I "of the 4 quarters of Ballinrobe." After obtaining the patent grants of Ballinrobe, if not earlier, THOMAS NOLAN went into occupation of the new castle at Ballinrobe, for the old castle attached to the Mac William's had probably even then become ruinous: every vestige of it has long since disappeared. Mr. Hubert Knox considers that its site was on the east bank of the river Robe, about where the iron bridge now is, but on the high ground.

20 August 1617 - THOMAS NOLAN of Ballinrobe re-granted by patent the castle and manor of Ballinrobe, with 4 quarters.

18 June 1628 - THOMAS NOLAN of Ballinrobe died. GREGORY NOLAN, the eldest son of THOMAS NOLAN, continued this family's succession at Ballinrobe Castle.

1653 - "GREGORY NOLAN'S estate was confiscated by the Cromwellian Government."

Glenn Allen Nolen

On his web page Nolan Ancestry Glenn Nolen adds
THOMAS NOLAN of Ballinrobe died in 1628 and was succeeded at Ballinrobe by his eldest son GREGORY NOLAN. GREGORY NOLAN'S estate was confiscated by the Cromwellian Government in 1653, and was granted in 1655 by the Cromwellian Commissioners to James Cuff, who was one of those Commissioners. This James Cuff was Knighted on 12th March 1661 and was confirmed in the possession of the Manor and Castle of Ballinrobe as well as extensive estates in the Barony of Tyrawley, by a patent under the Acts of Settlement, enrolled on the 2nd March 1666.
The above quote is from Notes on Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo and the Families of Burke, NOLAN, Cuff, and Knox written by Martin J. Blake, 1909.

The Brownes, the Neale - Early Landlords

From Landed Estates
"(Estate) Browne/Dillon-Browne (Glencorrib) - A branch of the Browne family of the Neale, barony of Kilmaine, county Mayo, settled near the village of Kilmaine and were generally known as of 'Ellistron' in the 18th century. In 1681 Valentine Browne was granted over 2,000 acres in the baronies of Kilmaine, Carra, Gallen and Tirawley, county Mayo with lands in counties Galway and Clare. In the 18th century the main part of the estate was in the parishes of Kilmainemore and Shrule. Two of the townlands belonging to them in the parish of Shrule, Mocorha and Bunnafollistran, had been sold to Sir Walter Blake in September 1699 by the trustees for the sale of the estate of Colonel John Browne of Westport. Robert Browne of Ellistron, parish of Kilmainemore, had a son Arthur who lived at Turin in the early 19th century. By the time of the first Ordnance Survey the Brownes were living at Glencorrib in the parish of Shrule. The last member of the family to reside at Glencorrib was Robert Dillon Browne, Member of Parliament and well known duellist, who sold the Browne estate in the barony of Kilmaine and the Holywell estate in the barony of Costello, county Mayo, in the early 1850s. The Glencorrib estate was bought by the Higgins family of Westport and James D. Meldon and the Kilmaine lands by Robert Tighe and Robert Fair. In 1882 over 150 acres in the baron of Longford, county Galway, the property of Arthur and Anne Dillon-Browne was offered for sale in the Land Judges court. In July 1882 the Irish Times reported that the Court had been informed that the tenants on the estate were willing to offer a total of £1106 to buy the property but that the owner sought a bid of up to £3000. The sale was adjourned."
The Browne family had a great house at Glencorrib. Their estate included the villages of Mochara, Cahir, Bunnafollistran and Ravenhill.

The House of Commons, as Elected to the Fourteenth Parliament of the United:

"Browne, Robert-Dillon: son of the late Arthur Browne, Esq., of Glencorrib, co. Mayo; first returned for the county on the Rt. Hon. Dominick Browne being created Baron Oranmore, May 1836, when he was proposed by Dr. M'Hale, Catholic Archbishop of Tuam; a Repealer; descends from the Kilmaine family; is cousin to the Countess of Ripon, and nephew of Thomas Martin, Esq., M.P. for Galway co."
Robert Dillon Browne son of Arthur Browne and Mary Kirwan died in 1850

The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 34

"July 1. In London, in his 39th year, Robert Dillon Browne, esq. M.P. for the county of Mayo.

He was the son of Arthur Browne, esq. of Glencorrib, co. Mayo; and was first elected to Parliament for that county in the year 1836, in the place of the Right Hon. Dominick Browne, then created Lord Oranmore and Browne. He was invariably found among the most liberal supporters of the Whig government. Mr. Browne was in the enjoyment of his usually excellent health until Friday the 28th June, when premonitory symptoms of gout developed themselves. On that evening, contrary to the advice of his medical advisers, he attended in bis place in the House of Commons for the purpose of recording his vote in favour of Lord Palmerston's foreign policy, and there is little doubt that the excitement and exposure to cold necessarily consequent on that step, tended to aggravate the illness with which he was threatened. On the following day he was seized with a violent attack of gout in the head, which terminated fatally. For some time previous to his death he was busily engaged in asserting his claims to the dormant Irish peerage of Roscommon.

Mr. Browne was an accomplished classical scholar, and a very able speaker. As a popular orator he had few superiors, and, though he spoke but seldom in the House of Commons, he never failed to command attention and respect."

The house at Glencorrib passed to George Gore Ouseley Higgins M. P. of Glencorrib and Mount Pleasant. He was born 15 October 1818 and was High Sheriff of Mayo in 1868. The house at Glenncorrib is not longer standing.

In August 2016 Laurence Gilmore sent me a copy of a document dated 1719 that listed a deed for Josias Browne of "Ellistron" County Mayo (noting earlier deed of 1707). There are two townlands in Kilmaine that related to the name: Ellistronparks at about 76 acres and Ellistronsbeg at about 344 acres. The properties are contiguous and are situated north east of the village of Kilmaine towards the town of Ballinrobe. They were in the Poor Law Union of Ballinrobe.

The Browne family of the Neale settled in Kilmaine parish and had a "castle" at "Ellistron". In the 1700s they also owned two townlands in Shrule parish: Mocorha and Bunnafollistran. Later the family lived in Glencorrib at Shrule Parish. Robert Dillon Browne a member of parliament was the last family member to live at Glenncorrib. The property was sold at his death in the early 1850s. Robert Tighe and Robert Fair bought the property in Kilmaine.

Josias Browne of Ellistron, Kilmaine, was the son of Valentine Browne. Josias had a will dated 11 March 1726 according to Digital Irish Genealogy and the Moore Institute.

Children of Josias Browne:

  1. Mary Browne daughter of Josias Browne of Ellistown, Co Mayo married Mark Blake, Ballinfad. Mark Blake died in 1755. Mary Browne Blake died in 1760. They had two sons and three daughters. (Blake Family Records)

  2. Valentine of Ellistron eldest son of Josias Browne

  3. Robert - 3rd son of Josias Browne

  4. Child: Arthur Browne - son of Robert - married Mary Kirwan lived at Turin Castle in 1814 - died 1841

    Child:

    1. ROBERT DILLON BROWNE, MP - died bankrupt in 1850 - only son of Arthur Browne - Turin Castle & Glencorrib, and Mary Kirwan. Robert Dillon Browne was a Member of Parliament for Co Mayo (1836-1850). Married Anne Blake, daughter of Dr. Henry Blake of Glenloe, near Galway, They had three sons : Arthur, Thomas and Robert.

Brown, Vall., of Ellistrin. D. Tuam. Dec. 24th 1726. Converts from Popery to Protestant Religion in Ireland, from the Commencement of the Reign of Queen Anne to 1772.

1836: Tithe Applotment listed Fair, Robert, as the tenant at:

  • Ellistronbeg Kilmainemore, 272 1st quality acres, and 50 acres of 2nd quality pasture

  • Ellistron Browne, 46 acres 1st quality

  • Thomastove 33 acres 1st quality and 27 acres of pasture

  • Gatepark, Arthur Browne Esq., 40 acres 1st quality

1805: The post-chaise companion: or, Travellers directory through Ireland. To ... By William Wilson (topographer.)
"Four miles below Ballinrobe, pn the R. is Cornfield, the seat of Mr. Gildea; and on the L. Browne's-town, that of Mr. Browne. Two miles and a quarter beyond Ballinrobe on the R. are the ruins of a church: and a mile farther, on the L. is Ellistron, the seat of Mr. Browne.

Near Kilmain, on the L. are the ruins of a church; and half main, on the L. is Turin - castle, the pleasant seat of Mr. Browne.

Within a mile and a half of Shrule, on the R. are the ruins of an abbey; and about half a mile, on the R. those of a castle; both situated at the side of a lake."

1838: Robert Dillon Brown M. P. and Mr. James Browne of Brown Hall in Mayo fought a duel near Chester. Robert Dillon Browne was wounded in the thigh. The quarrel arose over the elections in Mayo.

1840:

"FIGHTING INTELLIGENCE

On Wednesday Robert Dillon Browne, Esq., M.P. for Mayo, arrived in this town. The honourable gentleman stopped at Daly's hotel to change horses, and on entering the coffee-room met Charles Blake, Esq., senior, whom he accosted, and offered to shake hands with, but which Blake disdainfully refused. Shortly after they again met in the streets, and Mr. Brown coming close to Mr. Blake, enquired why he refused his hand?-Neither Mr. Blake's reply nor Mr. Browne's retort were heard by the nearest by standers; but Mr. Blake was observed to rise his hand, in which he held a stick, as if with an intent to strike Mr. Browne, who either in the effort to ward off the blow, or with design, bled his nose. The circumstances having been reported to the Magistrates presiding at the Petty Sessions, they adjourned the court, and accompanied by the police, came down to town.- Tomkins Brew, Esq., put both parties under arrest. His Grace the Archbishop, the Very Rev. Doctor Kirwan and several gentlemen endeavoured to procure an explanation but without effect. Mr. Brown was found to keep the peace; but Mr. Blake refused to enter securities, alledging he was not the aggressor, and Mr. Brew took him away in custody. Shortly after Mr. Browne left for Ballinasloe, amidst the cheering of the persons whom the circumstance had collected about the hotel. We understand Mr. Browne expressed his willingness to make any apology, if Mr. Blake would, on his honour, declare he did not intend to strike him before he (Mr. Browne) raised his hand. -- Tuam Herald."

1843: The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany
"The consequences which the lower classes of the Irish, and some of the upper, evidently expect from this new state of things, may be collected from what occasionally transpires at the repeal meetings. At that of Clifden, Mr. R. Dillon Browne, M.P., " ex-deputy lieutenant, and ex-justice of the peace," incautiously demonstrated the propriety of his removal from these posts, by threatening a highly respectable gentleman, Mr. D'Arcy, whom Mr. Browne characterized as a " contemptible wretch," with being soon visited by " fixity of tenure," a principle which, he added, "repeal would soon establish." Mr. O'Connell has endeavoured to expound what he terms "equity of tenure," in a comparatively innocent sense, namely, that every man who expends money upon the improvement of his farm should receive the amount he had expended upon it, on quitting the farm; but it is evident that Mr. Browne, M.P., and no doubt many who are not M.P.'s, give a much more enlarged and liberal construction to the phrase, "fixity of tenure."

1844: Hand-book for Ireland By James Fraser:

"In branching off No. 119 at Roundfort, we leave the village of Kilmaine and Ellistrin Castle, Browne, Esq., between three and four miles to the south of our road, and skirt the pastoral tract of lands called the Plains of Ellistrin."

1847: The Dublin almanac, and general register of Ireland, for 1847 - Robert Dillon Browne, esq. Reform Club, London; and Ellistron and Glencorrib, in this county.

1850 July "It is with much regret we have to announce the sudden demise Mr. Robert Dillon Browne, M.P. for the Co. of Mayo."

1850: The Irish Jurist Vol 2 - 3,200 acres of Land for sale in 7 lots from estate of Robert Dillon Browne, esq deceased, in the name of his eldest son, Arthur Dillon Browne a minor. The Irish Jurist

Lot 3

Mocarha containing 603 acres, 11 perches, Stature Measure, untenanted....

1851: The Irish Jurist Vol 3 - In the matter of the estate of Robert Dillon Browne in the name of his eldest son, Arthur Dillin Browne, a minor, notice of the sales of various estates in the Barony of Costell and the County of Mayo which included "the Kilmaine Estate" which encompassed "the Lands of Bunnafillistron", "the Lands of Mocharha", Ellistron Park, Ellistron and several others in the court of the Commissioner For the Sale of Incumbered Estates in Ireland.

Arthur Dillon Brown, the son of Robert Dillon Browne sold the estates following the death of his father.

"Robert Dillon Browne was a bankrupt Mayo MP addicted to sherry, who sometimes had to borrow a suit before appearing in parliament". (John Blake Dillon: Young Irelander)

1878: The Crusade of the Period: and Last Conquest of Ireland By William Dillon "there had long been an anxious wish amongst decent people to get rid of Dillon Browne, member for Mayo, a great Repealer, but a bloated bon vivant and an insolvent debtor"

Dillon-Browne of Glencorrib

My ancestor lived in Mochara: Nappy Naughton born circa 1813 married Michael Bryne born circa 1789. They had: Peter c 1831, Margaret c 1833, Nappy c 1835, Winny c 1838, Thomas c 1840. Nappy born c 1835 married Matthias Langan. They were the parents of Margaret (Maggie) born in Mochara in 1875. She is my great grandmother. Brynes still live in Mochara. See Brynes of Mochara


A cabin on the estate of Lord Castlemaine

Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, April 1880 collection of Maggie Land Blanck

How The Landlords and Land Agents Lived

Landlords and land agents hired laborers to farm and do other work on their property. Servants were also hired for housework, cooking, laundry, etc.


Print collection of Maggie Land Blanck

The Graphic, March 6, 1880


Print collection of Maggie Land Blanck

The Graphic, March 6, 1880


Print collection of Maggie Land Blanck

CHRISTMAS IN IRELAND — A LANDLORD DISTRIBUTING MEAT TO HIS TENANTS

Harpers Weekly December 28, 1878

Note: It is Christmas time, yet all of the women and children are barefooted!!


Print collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Castle MacGarrett, outside Ballindine, County Mayo (on the road to Claremorris) — Lord Oranmore and Brown

The estate contained two thousand acres of parkland and several hundred acres of woods. The river Robe ran through the estate.

The "castle" was destroyed by fire in 1811.

Dominick Browne (1787-1860), then Lord Oranmore and Browne, rebuilt the castle. The Browne family were the largest landowners in Connaught dutring his live. They owned 54,000 and 13 homes including Ashford Castle at Cong.

DOMINICK BROWNE, Esq., born May 28th, 1787, and married, in 1811, to Catherine Anne Isabelle Monck, daughter and heiress of Henry Monck, Esq. He was M. P. for the County of Mayo is seven Parliaments, was made a Member of the Privy Counsel in 1834, and raised to the Peerage of Ireland in 1836. He died January 30, 1860.

From the page accompanying the above print:
Lord Oranmore and Browne (Dominick Browne) had accumulated depts of over £200,000 ($960,000) on an estate with a pre-famine rental of less than £5,000($24,000) and in the estates sold through the Court fetched, more than twenty-five years' purchase.

The important point about these ratios distributions is that, even bearing the possibility of some bias in mind, they are much too large to have been caused by the famine. Even a landlord who had received only half the rents due to him during the worst famine years (say 1846-48), and who had been responsible for a significant share of the rates burden in his area, would not have accumulated debts anything on the scale."

(Black '47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy, and Memory By Cormac O Grada)


If you have any suggestions, corrections, information, copies of documents, or photos that you would like to share with this page, please contact me at maggie@maggieblanck.com

Captain Boycott
Land Issues

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MATTHIAS LANGAN
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BALLINROBE CHRONICLE
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