General Information on the Tithe Applotment
The Tithe Applotment
was a yearly tax levied on every person in Ireland, regardless of religion,
who rented or owned land. The monies raised were used for the support of the Church of Ireland
(Protestant Church) in rural areas.
Some property was
worth more than other property and was taxed accordingly.
Since no Catholics were allowed to own land in Ireland at the time, all the listings
connected to Catholics represent rental properties.
The Tithe Applotment only
listed heads of households. Heads of household could be male or female.
They could be single or married. Married sons and daughters frequently lived with their parents.
The system of inheritance in Ireland, at the time, made it possible for a household to consist of
a widowed mother, her son or daughter, his/her family, and unmarried siblings, with the
head of household listed as the widowed mother.
The tithe does not differentiate between the townlands and the town. The listings for
Carrownalecka, for example, do not indicate if the "address" is in the town or in the townland.
The Griffiths, on the other hand, divides
Carrownalecka into several sections that include "addresses" both in the townland and in the
It is often very hard
or impossible to connect the tithe applotment lists to other records. However, I have looked
for each family name in the places where they were later known to have lived.
A calculations of the value of the land and the amount of tax to be paid
was done in Ballinrobe parish in 1827 in the forth year of the reign of King George the Fourth
by the Reverent Cecil Crampton
and David Rutledge. The total amount of the tithe assessed was four hundred and eighty
pounds sterling payable to the Reverend Thomas John Burgh, the rector of the Church of Ireland
of Ballinrobe Parish.
The Tithe Applotment was done in Shrule parish in 1825.
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General Information on the Griffith Valuation
The Griffith Valuation was a tax assessment mandated by the
Tenement Act of 1842.
A uniform "valuation" based on the productive capacity of the land and potential
rental of buildings was made between 1846 and 1864 for all the taxable property in
Ireland to determine the amount of tax each tenant or landlord should pay to support
the poor and destitute within his "Poor Law Union".
Richard Griffith was the Commissioner of Valuation when the first assessments
were made and the records are known as the Griffith's Valuation.
The records are arranged by County, Barony, Poor Law Union, Civil Parish, and
Townland. In the case of Ballinrobe, the County was Mayo, the Barony was Killmaine,
the Poor Law Union was Ballinrobe, and the civil parish was Ballinrobe.
The civil parish of Ballinrobe was further subdivided into a number of townlands.
The townlands consisted of rural areas surrounding the town.
The town proper was divided into several sections, which corresponded to the
townland lying directly adjacent.
The first Griffith Valuation was
Ballinrobe and Shruel in 1857. Like the tithe applotment, it listed only heads of household.
The Griffith's Valuation was updated every few years through the 1930s.
The Griffiths Valuation listed each property according to a reference point on a map,
- The name of the "occupier"
- The name of the "immediate lessors"
"description of the tenement"
- The numbers of acres
- The amount of tax assessed
Tenement refers to any kind of permanent property and not to the type of apartment building
that became known as a tenement today. In-town properties were not listed with acreage,
since they were usually small lots. Frequent entries under "Tenement"
were: "land", "house", "office", "yard", and "garden". All of these are self explanatory
except "office". An office apparently could refer to anything from as large as a barn to
as small as a pigsty. I would assume that most of the "offices" in town
were not offices in the sense that we think of them as, but
were out buildings for tools and animals.
It is very clear that some people were listed with more than one "house".
I don't know exactly what of make of this fact.
There are eight Griffith ledgers covering Ballinrobe parish between 1857 and 1893.
There are no official dates on the ledgers, but notations in the margins make the ledgers
dateable (more or less) to the following years 1857, 1859, 1861, 1863, 1866, 1867, 1872-1880,
and 1893.. The dates are estimates and there are some obvious contradictions in the
There are eight Griffith ledgers covering Shrule parish between 1857 and 1910.
There are no official dates on the ledgers, but notations in the margins make the
ledgers dateable to the following years, 1857, 1857, 1861, 1862, 1865, 1868-1880, and
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The Tithe Applotment
As mentioned, Walsh was one of the most common names in County Mayo. Consequently,
sorting out the Walshes in the tithe and Griffith is more difficult than the other families in the
area. Due to the large numbers of Walshes in the records, I am only giving specific information on the
Walshes in the areas that are known to have been connected to John Walsh and his family.
The tithe allotment lists eight Walshes in the the town of Ballinrobe in general and two
in Cahirnalecka (Carrownalecka) specifically.
Carrownalecka was the part of town where John Walsh is known to have lived and it
is more likely he was connected to someone in this part of town than in another area.
There were no listings for Walsh in the tithe in Knockanotish, another "address" connected with
John Walsh and his family. In fact there were only two listings in Knockanotish in 1827 (both for
I believe that the area was "developed" as a residential
neighborhood at a later date.
The Walsh "families" listed in the town Ballinrobe were:
- David Walsh was listed with two properties in "Cahirnalecka" (Carrownalecka):
- A 3 acres parcel of land at a taxable rate of 3.0
- A 1¸ acres
parcel of land at a taxable rate of .5.
- Miles Walsh was listed with two properties in "Cahirnalecka" (Carrownalecka):
- A 2 acres parcel of land at a taxable rate of 2.3
- A 5 acres
parcel of land at a taxable rate of .3
- Since the better the land the higher the taxes, it can be assumed that the three acres
rented by David (taxed at 3) and the 1¸ acres rented by Miles (taxed at 2.3) were somehow
better than the land they were renting which was taxed at .5 and .3.
- Since the right to rent was often an inherited right, it is possible that either David or Miles
was related to John Walsh who was living in Carrownalecka from 1865 to 1867.
- Neither Myles not David were names of any of the children of John Walsh
Walsh & Co. in Cornaroya
John Walsh in Cornaroya
Thomas Walsh in Friars Quarters
David Walsh in Friars Quarters
Miles Walsh in Friars Quarters
Richard Walsh in Rathkelly Village.
In addition to the people listed in town, there were twenty one listings for the name Walsh in
the parish in general.
Neighborhoods (then and now) often include extented families.
Other people listed in Carrownalecka in the 1827 tithe
Jns (James) Martin, Martin Carr, Michael Larner, Jns Clark,
Jns Roach, Nicholas Mannion, John Larner, John Murphy, Andrew Hamilton,
Thomas Biggin, Mrs Miller, "Late Farragher now C Kinney Esq., Hugh Reilly,
Matthew Murphy, Peter Smith, Dennis Murtagh, Jns Sheridan, Tom Size, Jns Lyons, Patt
Feerick, Jns Sheridan, and the widow Dewell.
Sponsors for the children of John Walsh included the names Lardner (also spelt Larner)
The Griffith Valuation
The first Griffith in Ballinrobe was done twenty-four years after the tithe survey and
six years after the first year of the famine. The famine years are traditional said to be from
1845 to 1848, but there were still repercussions into the 1850s. Brian Smith in
Tracing Your Mayo Ancestors says,
" The County was significantly affected by the Great Famine of 1845-1847, which
resulted in the death or emigration of 30% of the population by 1851".
Interestingly, the number of Walshes in Ballinrobe Parish at least doubled between 1827 and 1857.
It is difficult to determine exactly how many Walshes were living in Ballinrobe Parish in 1827.
There were twenty-one listings for the name Walsh in the tithe survey. Since several of the
given names were the same, this most likely
represents less than the twenty-one who were listed.
Based on the number of each given name listed there were at least eleven families of Walshes in Ballinrobe Parish in 1827.
It is impossible to determine how many people were in the "household".
It could have been one person living by themselves or a father with ten or twelve children.
When the Griffith's valuation were taken twenty-four years later (despite the devastating
results of the famine) there were 82 listings for the name Walsh. Again,
the 82 listings do not necessarily represent 82 different people.
Breaking the Walshes down in several different ways shows:
However, since the right to rent a certain parcel of land was often hereditary in Ireland during the period of
English domination, it is highly likely that some of the people listed in a certain townland in the
Tithe Allotment Survey in 1827 and in the Griffiths in 1857 were related to each other and
to people who were living in the same townland at a later date.
The Walshes as listed in the Griffiths Valuation by first name groupings are: John,
thirteen times, Nicholas, eleven times, Patrick, ten times, Thomas, nine times,
William, nine times, Michael, five times, Catherine, three times, James, three times,
Martin, three times, Miles, one time, Myles, two times, Bridget, two times, Margaret,
two times, Cicely, two times, and the following one time each; Anthony, David, Ellen,
Honoria, Michael, Jr., Ulick, Walter, "William, the son of James", and "William, the
son of Patrick".
Based on the number of each given name listed
there were at least twenty two families of Walshes in Ballinrobe in 1857.
This is counting Miles
and Myles as the same name with different spellings.
With common names like John, Patrick, Thomas, William and Michael it quite
possible that there was more than one "head of household" with these names.
On the other hand,
I am fairly sure there was only one Nicholas Walsh.
All of the Walshes were listed as tenants, except, Nicholas Walsh, who is listed as
both a tenant and a landlord. Since Miles and David are less common given names it is
tempting to assume that they are the same Miles and David who were listed in 1827.
However, Miles is listed with a house in Rathcareen and a house in Cornaroya.
This makes it possible that there are two Mileses. Since neither is in the same place as
1827 it is impossible to know if either one of them is "himself". There is only one
David Walsh but again he is not in the same place in 1827 and 1857.
According to the number of "houses" listed in 1857, it is possible that there were,
seven Johns, seven Patricks, four Thomases, four William, four Michaels,
two Catherines, three Jameses, two Matins, two Mileses, one Bridget, two Cicelys,
and one each of Anthony, David, Ellen, Honoria, Margaret, Michael Jr., Ulick, Walter,
"William, the son of James", and "William, the son of Patrick". While Nicholas Walsh was
listed as the "Immediate Lessor" of eleven houses, there is no indication of where Nicholas actually
Based on the number of "houses" the total number of Walsh families in Ballinrobe
could have been as high as forty-eight.
Meaning that the population of Walshes in
Ballinrobe did not decrease by the estimated famine rate of 30%, but
increased more than four times.
There are several glitches with this theory:
- The records for Nicholas Walsh indicate that he was one person who
rented houses he subleted or used for some other purpose.
This was actually a common practice among the English who obtained the rights to rent
land, working as a sort of agent for the absentee landlords.
(See Captain Boycott and Courtney Kenny.). If Nicholas Walsh was doing this,
other Walshes could have been doing the same.
- It is also possible that
"house" like "office" had a broader meaning than is obvious.
- The valuation only took into consideration
people who owned or rented land, it did not count the employees of landholders who may have
lived with the landlord.
(Which of course could mean that there were even more Walshes.)
- Ballinrobe was a magnet for people from the villages of Cross, Cong,
Neale, Party and others in the surrounding area. Some of the Walshes in Ballinrobe
in 1857 could have been born twenty or more miles away a may not have been the
children of the Walshes who were listed in the Tithe Applotment in 1827.
Not only were their numbers larger in 1857 than in 1827, but the Walshes were
also listed in many more townlands.
John Walsh was born no later than 1840.
Consequently, one of the people listed in the tithe applotment could have been
his father or grandfather.
There were a lot of Walshes in Ballinrobe. See
The 1857 Griffith for a complete
There were the following listings for Walsh either as an occupant or lessor in Carrownalecka and
Knockanotish, where John
Walsh is known to have lived lived:
- Hugh M'Clellan renting a house, offices, yard and garden, from Nicholas Walsh on Chapel Rd.
Carrownalecka, Town of Ballinrobe
- Nicholas Walsh renting an office from Colonel Charles Knox on Chapel Rd.,
Carrownalecka,Town of Ballinrobe
- Patrick Walsh renting a house, yard and small garden from the Rev. James Anderson
on Chapel Rd., Carrownalecka, Town of Ballinrobe
- Honoria Walsh renting a house, yard and small garden from the Rev. James Anderson on
Chapel Rd., Carrownalecka, Town of Ballinrobe
- Catherine Walsh renting a house and yard from the Rev. James Anderson on Chapel Rd.,
Carrownalecka, Town of Ballinrobe
- Martin Walsh renting a forge from James Mitchel on Chapel Rd,
Carrownalecka, Town of Ballinrobe
- Gardians of Ballinrobe Union renting the Fever Hospital from Nicholas Walsh, Carrawnalecka,
Town of Ballinrobe
- John Walsh renting a house and yard from Courtney Kenny on High St., Knockanotish,
Town of of Ballinrobe
There were several Walshes (Edward, Luke and another John who was connected to Walter ) who were not listed in the first Griffith in
were listed in later Griffiths. I cannot connect them in any way to John
Walsh. Consequently, I have not included them in this survey.
There is only one listing in Griffith in 1857 for the Walsh in Knockanotish.
John Walsh was renting a yard and house in Knockanotish, Town of Ballinrobe, High Street
from Courtney Kenny.
John Walsh was listed at number 12 High Street, Knockanotish in
with a house and yard. In the 1857 Griffith, John Walsh was replaced at number
12 High Street by James Boyle. The listing at this address in the 1859 ledger is identical
including the crossed out name.
Nicholas was an uncommon name in south Mayo. The records that are available show two
The Griffiths lists Pat Walsh at number 14 Chapel Road, Carrownalecka, Ballinrobe with a house,
and garden from 1857 through 1893. Patrick Walsh and his wife, Mary Noone, of Chapel Road,
Carrownalecka had several children:
Honoria Walsh was listed at number 16 Chapel Road, Carrownalecka in the 1857 Griffith.
In the 1857 Griffith Honoria Walsh
was crossed and Martin Holleran (?) was entered. I have no other information on Honoria Walsh.
Catherine Walsh was listed at number 28 Chapel Road, Carrownalecka in the 1857 book.
In the 1866 book Catherine Walsh was replaced by Mary Duffy.
I have no other information on Catherine Walsh.
Martin Walsh was listed in the Griffith at the forge at 46 Chapel Road,
Carrownalecka from 1857 until 1867. The "1880" ledger lists Patrick Walsh
at the forge on Chapel Road renting "in Fee". In 1893, the tenant was
Catherine Walsh the name Patrick Walsh had been crossed out.
Martin Walsh was at number 31 Creagh Road, Rathkelly with house, yard and
garden from 1857 to 1867. In the 1880 ledger he was replaced by Catherine Walsh.
I am not sure if this was the residence of Martin Walsh who ran the forge.
However, given that the name changes were the same for 31 Creagh Road and 46 Chapel
Road it is likely. John Walsh, the father of Joseph Walsh, in the Griffith
The 1857 and 1859 Griffith show May Glynn at number 11 Creagh Road in Carrownalecka. In the "1861" ledger, Mary Glynn
was replaced by John Walsh. John Walsh was listed at number 11 Creagh Road in the "1863"
ledger. In the "1866" ledger he was replaced by John Buchingham(?).
This is in keeping with the civil records which show that John Walsh moved from Carrownalecka to Knockanothish
between 1867 and 1869.
There is no listing for John Walsh in Knockanotish in the the 1867 to 1892 ledgers.
There were 17 listings (all of them on High Street) in Knockanotish.
None of the names listed
in the "1867" to "1892" ledgers were connected with John Walsh, except for John Lardner who was
crossed out in the "1867" ledger.
Several of the houses were listed under Stanhope Kenny, including a "caretakers" house. Since
John Walsh was known to have been living in Knockonotish during this period, I assume he
was in one of the houses listed under Stanhope Kenny. This may indicate that he
was employed by Stanhope Kenny. John Walsh was listed in 1869 as a farmer, in 1871 and 1873
a gardener, in 1875 as a steward, in 1877 as a gardner, and in 1882 as a steward. The
occupations of gardner and steward required an estate on which to work.
In the "1893" ledger # 11 was first listed as "vacant". This was crossed out and John Walsh was entered.
John Walsh was crossed out and Consable Michael Kenny was entered.
Looking back at #11, the 1868 to 1892 ledger listed William Braken (crossed out), Stanhope
Kenny and Lodgers. In the 1862 to 1868 ledger Michael commons had been listed at #11.