Stone vaulting of the eastern extension of the Church of All Saints, 20th century

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The Parish of Wakefield

My Land ancestors were in Wakefield from the 1730s to the 1790s. Charles Land and his wife, Elizabeth Dunford, moved from Wakefield to Leeds, between 1789 and 1797. Their grandson, John Land, moved from Leeds back to Wakefield, where he lived from at least 1848 to 1853. He was listed at Westgate Common, Alverthorpe with Thornes, at the birth of his daughter, Elizabeth Ann in 1849. In the 1851 census he was listed at 106 Clayton Hill, in the Township of Alverthorpe Cum Thornes.

In January 2014 Brian from Wakefield kindly told me:

Westgate Common runs from roughly the Westgate end of Ings Road to St Michaels Church, Clayton Hill runs from the end of Lawfield Lane where The Waggon and Horses pub is up the slight rise where it levels out and runs right down to the Park as Lawfield Lane. The first street on the right is Milton St. On the opposite side of the end of Lawfield Lane to the pub is a building with a rounded end recently a bridal wedding shop this was the original Clayton Hospital. Sick people could be cared for there by volunteers.
Wakefield was a town*, a township, a parish, and a district in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The town is on the river Calder, nine miles south/ south/east of Leeds. The parish contained the townships of Horbury, Stanley-with-Wrenthorpe, and Alverthorpe-with Thornes. Note: * May 2011, Richard Lowther informs me that Wakefield became a city in 1888.

Wakefield is dated to Roman times and it was listed in the Doomsday Book. The woolen trade was active by the time of Henry VIII (1485-1509).

The priciple church, All Saints, was erected in the time of Henry III (1216-1272). However, with repeated repairs and alterations, little of the original 13th century church remains.


Lands in Wakefield

My ancestor, Charles Land, was baptized in Wakefield in 1767, the son of John Land. He married Elizabeth Dunford in Wakefield in 1787 and at least one son, James, was born in Wakefield in 1789. The family then moved to Leeds where a second known child, Charles Lewis Land, was born in 1797. Charles Lewis Land married Ann Dinsdell. They lived in Leeds where their son, John, was born in 1818. John Land and his family moved back to Wakefield where they were from circa 1847 to circa 1851.

Known addresses for John Land and family in Wakefield were:

  • Botton of Back Lane, 1847

  • Westcate Common 1849 and 1852

  • Clayton Hill 1851

    • These addresses are in close proximity to one another.


Wakefield from the south, 1722


Plan of Wakefield 1790

1790 Plan of the City of Wakefield

With my designations.

The Lands lived in Westgate.

Images of England, WAKEFIELD, compiled by John Goodchild

Bull Ring, Wakefield

The bull ring or Market Place was once an open space where bull bating with dogs once took place.


Bull Ring

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Not dated

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Corn Exchange

New Corn Exchange

The corn exchange was on upper Westgate

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Market Cross

The Market Cross, Cross Square

The Market Cross was built in 1707. It was pulled down sometime after 1866.

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, copy of old photo bought on eBay 2006

The Pageant of Wakefield and the West Riding, 1933, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

THE MARKET CROSS


Cattle Market.

Cattle Market

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, copy of old photo bought on eBay 2006

Originally held on the streets of Wakefield it was moved to George Street in 1765. In the 1800s it was the biggest cattle market in Northern England. In 1868 the market for cattle was held on Wednesdays and there were livestock fairs July 4 and November 11 for cattle horses and sheep.


River Calder and Chantry Bridge

The St Mary the Virgin Chantry Chapel was built between 1342 and 1347. Chantries, built by bequests, were established as places where priests prayed for the soul of the deceased. The chapel underwent major renovations in 1848.


St Mary the Virgin Chantry

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck


Wakefield River Calder from Chantry Bridge

Not posted

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck, June 2011

Original Front of Chantry, Wakefield

The original facade of the Chantry is on the grounds of Kettlethrope Hall on the outskirts of the city. It is one a the few remaining examples of medieval bridge chapels.

See Bridge Chapels by Edward Green


The River Calder and Chantry, Wakefield

Posted 1952

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

The Pageant of Wakefield and the West Riding, 1933, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

WAKEFIELD BRIDGE, drawn by N Whittock, engraved by J Rogers

The Chantry with All Saints steeple in the background.


The Pageant of Wakefield and the West Riding, 1933, Engraving by J. Walker from a Drawing by W. Turner, 1798, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

WAKEFIELD FROM THE CLADER (Turner) 1798

This images shows the Chantry Bridge and the steeple of All Saints. In the background is the steeple of St. John's Chruch, which was consecrated in 1795.


Northgate


Northgate, Wakefield, 1853

The horse drawn wagon is approaching the town center and the church from the north.

Postcard from a lithograph by Rev. Thomas Kilby

In the mid 1700s the nobility lived in Northgate.


All Saints, Wakefield

The present church was consecrated in 1329. The tower was build in the 15th century. However, in 1860-1

"the spire of the church was entirely rebuilt and provided with crockets (the immediately preceding spire having been without this feature) and raised to its present height, 247 feet, the tallest in Yorkshire."

The City of Wakefield, 1947

Note: A crocket is a decorative element of Gothic architecture.

The parish church became a cathedral in 1888 when William Walsham How became the first bishop of Wakefield.


All Saints Parish Church

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck. Photograph by John Edwards

Approaching the church from the west.

Bread Street , 1853.

Bread Street was originally called Bread Booths. The only bakehouse in Wakefield was set up on Bread Street in 1306. Everyone who sold bread had to bake it in the oven in the Bread Street bakehouse.

Postcard from a lithograph by Rev. Thomas Kilby

1690 engraving showing the church from the south

WAKEFIELD CATHEDRAL

From the north, 1853

1853 engraving by A.B.Higham

WAKEFIELD CATHEDRAL

Approaching the All Saints from the west, 2002

Photo by Tom Blanck

All Saints from the southeast, 2002

Photos by Tom Blanck

All Saints

Posted 1906

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

All Saints

Not posted

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

All Saints

Posted 1903

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

The enterior of the church, 2002

Despite the modern look of the font, the guide book says it was installed in 1660.

Photos by Tom Blanck

The church reflected in the glass front of a modern building.

Photo by Tom Blanck

A punishment for scolds and gossips

On a wall of the tower buttress is this chain attached with a bolt. There used to be an iron collar (called a "joug") attached to it. Scolds, gossips, or others sentenced to church discipline in medievel times were subject to having the collar put around their neck.

WAKEFIELD CATHEDRAL

Kirkgate

"It is interesting to reflect that even at this late date the roads, footpaths and sanitary arrangements were of the most primitive type. Down the center of lower Kirkgate, indeed, from William Street to the bridge, flowed the Skitterick Beck, which was nothing else but an open drain, and it was only in 1771 that the passing of the Wakefield Paving Act provied the citizens with powers to put things in more seemingly condition."

The City of Wakefield, 1947


Six Chimneys, Kirkgate

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Six Chimneys was built in 1566 and collapsed in 1941 due to neglect and alterations in its internal structure.


Six Chimneys and Kirkgate

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Six Chimneys and Kirkgate

Posted 1907

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Printed on the front:

"Built about 1520 as a Noblemans Country residence or Hunting Seat. It originally stood in extensive private grounds and had six gables (instead of the three now showing) each with a stone chimney in centre- hence the name Six Chimneys. Two gables were demolished to make room for adjoining Hotel & the other gable stood at Legh Street end of buliding"

The Pageant of Wakefield and the West Riding, 1933, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

THE SIX CHIMNEYS


Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck, June 2011

Reproduction of a 1905 postcard of Kirkgate Wakefield.

An Edwardian view, c. 1905, of the busy shopping street. All the buildings on the left were demolished in the road widening scheme."

Wood Street

Embossed in corner "23 Wood St, Wakefield"
Copy of old photo bought on eBay 2006, collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Back Lane

The Land Family lived at the Botttom of Back Lane in 1847.


twixtaireandcalder.org.uk, collection of Wakefield Local Studies Library

Drawing by Henry Clarke - BACK LNE FROM WESTGATE - The south end of Wakefield prison can be seen at the end of the street.


Clayton Hill, West Gate Common

The Land Family lived at Westgate Common in 1849 and 1852 and were listed at Clayton Hill, Alverthorpe with Thornes in 1851 census. The 1890 Ordnance Survey map shows Clayton Hill running parallel to Westgate End. I am assuming Westgate Common and Clayton Hill are one and the same given the overlap of dates.

There were a number of mills shown in the neighborhood: Westgate Mills, Albion Mills, City Worsted Mills, Ing Road Mills, Chald Mills, and Providence Mills. I do not know what kind of mills these were of if they were in existence at the time the Lands lived in the area.

Hand-weaving has long been superseded by the use of machinery for spinning, weaving and finishing woollen cloth, and we have now in the town and neighbourhood, the Woollen manufactories of Messrs. George Stubley and Son, Porto Bello mills; Mr. J. S. Booth, Castle Bank mills; Messrs. Wade, Playfair and Company; Messrs. Colbeck, Brothers; and others.

Memories of merry Wakefield: an octogenarian's recollections: being personal ... By Henry Clarkson, 1887

In describing the great Yorkshire Election of 1807 Henry Clarkson stated:

The excitement in Wakefield was tremendous, and much rejoicing was displayed by the victorious party; there were many gay doings to celebrate the event, and among other sights I recollect one which made an impression on me - this was seeing an old woman, who lived on Clayton Hill, "chaired" all round the town, by some humble but enthusiastic admirers of Lord Milton, in honour of his return. She was always afterwards called "Lady Milton," and the street on Clayton Hill where she lived is known to this day as Milton Street.

Memories of Merry Wakefield: an octogenarian's recollections: being personal ... By Henry Clarkson, 1887

In 1851 Westgate Common contained a large number of workers connected with worsted manufacturing, prison workers of various stripes, masons, smiths (blank and white), cloth dressers, dyers and miscellaneous others. John Land was the only cloth drawer.

The 1853 Trade Directory for Wakefied did not list John Land or any other cloth drawers in Wakefield. It did ist three cloth finishers: George Harrison, Ings Road, house 16 Quebec Street, James Holt, Horbury Road, Jno Naylor & Co, Westgate Common.

The population of Wakefield in 1851 was 22,066.


twixtaireandcalder.org.uk, collection of Wakefield Local Studies Library

Drawing by Henry Clarke - MILTON STREET, WESTGATE COMMON, WAKEFIELD


The Prison, Wakefield

The original prison or gaol was built on the same site in 1594. It was enlarged in Victorian times.

ee A Short History of Wakefield Prison, Wakefield Council

Records show that two Lands were connected with the prison at Wakefield:

  1. James Land born 1779 was listed as a prison turnkey at the birth of his children in 1814, and 1816.

  2. Thomas Land, born circa 1843 in Rothwell, was listed as a Prison officer at Wakefield prison in the 1881 census.

I do not know if they were related to my family of Lands.

To see the 1891 census index of prisoners at Wakefield prison go to Blacksheep Ancestors


The Prison, Wakefield

Posted 1923

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, June 2011

Zion Congregational Church

At the back of South Parade, in George street, stand Zion Independent Chapel and new schools. Until lately the chapel was called "Bruce's," after the Rev. Samuel Bruce, the first minister: The present building was constructed in 1844 on the site of the original structure, which was opened, it is said, 1st January, 1783. The conveyance of the land bears date 22nd October, 1782, Rodney yard then being Fox yard, and George street Ings lane. The congregation previously met in the Great Bull yard. The schools were built in 1868.

Mr. Samuel Thompson, in 1840, being then 80 years, informed Mr. Ince that in 1778 the Rev. Mr. Ralph, an Independent minister, a relative of his uncle's, John Thompson's, of Westgate, innkeeper (Coopers' Arms), came here, and Sunday after preached in a house in Theatre yard (now Drury-lane). Samuel Thompson was then 18 years old, and lived with his uncle. Mr. Ralph being threatened for preaching in an unlicensed house, on the following Sunday preached at Flanshaw-hill to a large assembly. Immediately after, a room was taken in the Great Bull yard, Westgate, which was occupied about 2 years - part of the time by supplies. The Rev. Mr. Tappe officiated, and he expected to have been called to be minister of the new chapel, but the Rev. Saml. Bruce was called, and became the first minister. Mr. Bruce was succeeded by the Rev. J. D. Lorraine. The Rev. William Tappe's widow, whose maiden name was Clarkson, is buried in Zion chapel vard, "Mary, wife of Rev. Wm. Tapp, died 30 Aug., 1783, aged 28 years." This is the origin of modern Independency in Wakefield, established first by Mr. John Thompson and his nephew, Mr. Samuel Thompson. Mr. Thompson and his family were afterward attendars at Salem chapel. - T. N. I.

Walks in Yorkshire; Wakefield and its neighbourhood: with map, and fifty ... By William Stott Banks, 1870


Enterior of the Zion Congregational Chapel on George Street

This enterior was not what was seen by Charles Land and Elizabeth Dunford when their son, James, was baptized in this church in 1789. The church was rebuilt in the 1840s on the same site as the old church established in the early 1780s.

In May 2011 Richard Lowther wrote that the Zion Congregational Church is now luxury apartments.

Images of England, WAKEFIELD compiled by John Goodchild

Westgate

In the mid 1700s rich merchants, doctors and other upper class people lived in Westgate.


Westgate

Looking towards the church of All Saints

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Westgate

Looking towards the church of All Saints.

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Westgate

Not posted

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Timber frame houses, Westgate, 1890s

Drawing by Henry Clarke

Postcard from a lithograph by Rev. Thomas Kilby

On March 16, 2009 Terry Stead wrote:

"This is looking along Little Westgate, some of the buildings on the left are still there. You have another just further on looking down Bread Street. Bread Street runs parallel with Little Westgate in fact the buildings on the left of Little Westgate have their back in Bread St. If you compare the Cathedral in both you will see the it is the same aspect.

One of the streets off Westgate

Photo by Maggie Blanck

Westgate Common and Alverthorpe cum Thornes

Alverthorpe cum Thornes (Alverthorpe with Thornes) was a term used to cover all of the area to the west of the city of Wakefield. Alverthorpe was a hamlet to the northwest of the city and Thornes was a hamlet to the southwest of the city.

Westgate Common lies between Alverthorpe and Thornes on the north side of the road to Dewsbury just outside the town proper.

The map shows the locations of Westgate Common and Clayton Hills, two "addresses" connected with John Land, when he lived in Wakefield in the mid 1800s.


Alverthorpe

All of the area north of the road to Dewsbury is new. As a matter of fact, there was a lot of construction of new developments going on when we visited in June 2002.

A little further northwest just before getting to Alverthorpe is an area called, Flanshaw, where there was this group of "older" houses.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

Alverthorpe

Date unknown

Copy of old photo bought on eBay 2006, collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Colbeck Mill, Alverthorpe

Date unknown

Copy of old photo bought on eBay 2006, collection of Maggie Land Blanck

West Ardsley

West Ardsley is a village between Alverthorpe in Wakefield Parish and Morley in Batley Parish.


West Ardsley

William Law and his family lived in West Ardsley from at least 1838 to 1840. Emma Law was born in West Ardsley in 1838 and Littice Law was born in West Ardsley in 1840.

Images of England, WAKEFIELD compiled by John Goodchild

Sandal

Sandal (or Sandal Magna) is a suburb two miles south of Wakefield. It was recorded in 1086 in the Doomsday Book as having a church with a priest.


Postcard collection Maggie Land Blanck, June 2011

Sandal Church


Postcard collection Maggie Land Blanck, June 2011, from a reproduction of a photo bought on ebay.

Sandal Castle Ruins

Sandal was a medieval fortified castle belonging to the Manor of Wakefield.

The Ancient Manor of Wakefield was largely covered in forest. King Edward the Confessor (1003-1066) was the first known Lord of the Manor. After the battle of Hastings in 1066 the property passed to William the Conqueror. Yorkshire men rebelled against William in 1068. In retaliation William and the Normans ravaged the land destroying homesteads, villages and towns. The area was devastated. When the Doomdday Book was compiled 16 years later the value of the Manor of Wakefield was a forth of what it had been in the time of the Confessor.

In 1091 the manor was granted by the king to his nephew, William, 2nd Earl of Warenne and Surrey. The third Earl died in Palestine during the crusades. In 1204 the 6th Earl was granted a charter to hold a fair at the feast of All Saints. In 1258 he obtained an additional charter to hold a fair at the feast of St. John the Baptist. The 8th and last Earl died in 1347 without heir. The Manor of Wakefield reverted to the crown.


The Pageant of Wakefield and the West Riding, 1933, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

SANDAL CASTLE NEAR WAKEFIELD


If you have any suggestions, corrections, information, copies of documents, or photos that you would like to share with this page, please contact me at maggie@maggieblanck.com

Wakefield Information
John Land (1818) born Leeds, lived in Wakefield/Thornes in the mid 1800s
Charles Land (1767) born Wakefield
Early Lands in Wakefield
Land Connections Page

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© Maggie Land Blanck - page created 2004 - latest update, January 2014