| Industry and Commerce in Red Hook and Carroll Gardens,
Brooklyn in the mid to late 1800s|
History and Images
|HOME - Fritz Kettler - BLANCK INTRODUCTION - Berend Petermann - PETERMANN INTRODUCTION - SECOND PLACE CHURCHES IN RED HOOK - NORWEGIANS IN RED HOOK - Other Images of Brooklyn - LIFE IN RED HOOK MID TO LATE 1800S - RED HOOK TAVERNS SALOONS AND LIQUOR STORES IN THE MID TO LATE 1800S - RED HOOK WATERFRONT IN THE MID TO LATE 1800S|
Red Hood/Carrol Gardens in the 1850s & 60s|
"The Atlantic Docks had recently been built and the Hamilton Ferry established. The streets had many of them been graded, but there were few houses. A large hill extended from Forth Place to Degraw Street, and from Columbia street nearly to Gowanas canal, which was some forty to fifty feet in height,was being removed.The Atlantic Basin, build in 1847 by the Atlantic Dock Company, was an enclosed safe harbor for sailing ships. The Hamilton Ferry was original started in 1846 to facilitate traffic to and from Greenwood Cemetery. The Erie Basin around the "hook" from the Atlantic Basin was opened in 1864. All three were important components in the development of the Red Hood area.
Brooklyn docks 1916, Pictorial History of Brooklyn, Brooklyn Eagle 1916|
This 1916 "Bird's Eye View" of the Brooklyn waterfront shows Red Hook in the left half of the image:
Red Hook 1880s to early 1900s
My family appeared in Brooklyn in the mid to late 1880s. My intention is to try and look at Red Hook at the time they lived there.
An 1886 map of "part of Ward 12" shows warehouse lining the Atlantic Basin and Erie Basin. In the northern part of Ward 12 several manufacturing establishments were indicated: Eggleston Spring Co, Richardson & Boynton Stove Works, S. Brooklyn Iron Foundry and Steam Works, Hydraulic Pump Works, a glassworks, "Cheeseborough" Vaseline*, Atlantic Flour Mills, a sugar house, and a lumber yard, and Pioneer Iron Works.
In 1892 some Red Hook businesses were listed in a history of the Brooklyn fire department.
"One of the finest water-fronts in the world was the inducement that attracted many large manufacturing firms in New York, and in fact from all over the country, to locate there. Besides that it was within five minutes' walk of Hamilton Ferry. In a short time immense factories and warehouses grew up with surprising rapidity. Now it is by far the greatest manufacturing centre in the city. Among the large industries that give employment to hundreds, who live in, and go to make up the large resident population of the region, are the stove works of the Richardson & Boynton Company, the factory of the Chesboro Vaseline Manufacturing Company, Worthington's Hydraulic Pump Works, the Pioneer Iron Works, the Lidgerwood Iron Works, the South Brooklyn Machine Company, the India Wharf Brewing Company, J. M. Williamson's Drop Forging Works, P. H. Gill's Elevator Works, Casey's Rosin Works, the South Brooklyn Fire Brick Manufactory, and many other large concerns. Besides these are the immense storehouses that line the water-front, including those of the Beard estate, the Robinson estate, the Atlantic Dock Company, the Erie Basin Stores, Findlay's Stores, and the Long Dock Stores. Added to these are the large shipbuilding concerns located along the bay, and thousands of vessels, large and small, that are continually loading and unloading their cargoes there. It is estimated that more goods are handled at the Atlantic Dock and Erie Basin than at any other similar places in the country. Recently the Inman and White Star Steamship Companies have purchased property in the district, and before long it will be the headquarters of these and other large lines of transatlantic steamship companies."
Manufacturers in Red Hood in the late 1800s and early 1900s
This next section is an attempt to determine the types of industrial businesses in Red Hook in the mid to late 1800s and the early 1900s. I have used various sources including: maps*, the Brooklyn Eagle (BE), the New York Times (NYT), and other newspapers, google books, Ancestry.com, the New York Public Library digital collection, the Internet, my own collection of images, and multiple walks through Red Hook. I started trying to identify business in Red hook using the 1886 map.
*Maps Include the years 1855, 1861, 1869, 1886, 1880, 1898-99, 1903, 1904, 1916. The maps do no all cover the same area, although they all cover some part of Ward 12 and Red Hook. Colors indicate buildings materials: red for brick, yellow for wood, and grey for stone. Some maps have annotations for some buildings.
Chesebrough Manufacturing Company, Between Verona and Delavan on Richards - Robert Chesebrough
The 1869 map shows an unlabeled structure on Richards between Delavan and Ewen (later Verona). The location on the 1880 map was listed as "Oil Works" and on the 1886 map as "Cheeseborough vaseline".
In 1886 the Chesebrough Manufacturing Company was located between Richards st., Dwight st. Verona and Delavan sts.
Robert A Chesebrough invented Vaseline, a popular home health care item. The Vaseline factory was on Richards between Verona and Delavan by 1870. The facility was enlarged several times over the years. In 1904 Chesebrough moved to Perth Amboy, New Jersey. American Stopper moved into part of the old Red Hook Vaseline factory.
For more information and images go to Chesebrough in Red Hook
Atlantic Flour Mills,
Electric Sugar Refinery, Sonoma Wine & Brandy, Hamilton Ave
Near the end of the Atlantic Basin
Listed on the 1861 map as "Smith and Jewell Flour Mill". Structure shown but not labeled on the 1869 map. Listed on the 1880 map unnamed "flour mill". I have found two 1886 maps. One lists the propert as "vacant" the other as "Atlantic Flour". The 1889-90 map of the area lists "Somonia Liguor" in the old mill building. The 1907 map lists the "Sonoma wine & Brandy co. The 1916 map lists Somoma Wine Co. No longer standing.
For more information and images go to Atlantic Flour
R. W. Adams Lumber Yard, Atlantic Sugar Refinery - Santa Rosa Sugar Refinery - India Wharf and the India Wharf Brewing co., 36-60 Hamilton Ave (at Conover)
The 1869 map of Brooklyn shows R W Adams Lumber and coal yard at the corner of Hamilton and Conover backing on India Wharf. This is where the Atlantic Sugar Refinery later stood. In 1869 R. W. Adams is also shown to have a lumber yard between Imlay and Van Brunt and Summit and Bowne. The location is listed a "Lumber Yard" on the 1886 map. The location was listed on the 1880 map as "Sugar Refinery" and on the 1886 map as "India Wharf Storehouse". No longer standing.
For more information and images go to Adams Lumber
Worthington Hydraulic Pump Works, between Van Brunt and Richards and Seabring and Rapelye streets (including Bowne st.)
The 1869 map shows a large unlabeled structure on Van Brunt between Rapelye and Bowne. Worthington Hydraulic was listed on the 1880 and 1886 maps. The major area of this complex (between Rapelye and Bowne, Van Brunt and Richards) has been cut away by the widening of Hamilton Ave and the entrance to the Battery Tunnel. There are still tightly backed warehouse type buildings in the area.
For more information and images see Worthing Hydraulic Pump Works
Pioneer Iron Works, Williams Street (between Conover and Van Brunt and William and King)
On the 1880 map the building is shown and labeled "Machine Shop". It is listed on the 1886 map as "Pioneer Iron Works". There was a building at this location on the 1869 map but it was not labeled. Parts of this complex are still standing.
The Pioneer Iron works were located at 149-163 Williams Street (between Conover and Van Brunt and William and King - end of Imlay Street.). Williams street is now Pioneer Street.
The company was founded by Alexander Bass and later managed by his son, William Louis Bass.
For more information and images see Pioneer Iron Works
South Brooklyn Iron Foundry and Steam Engine Works, AKA South Brooklyn Boiler Works, between Imlay and Van Brunt, Bowne and Summit Streets, nearest Summit - Daniel McLeod, Delphin B. Cobb, Delphin McLeod Cobb, John J Riley & J. Joseph Reily.
The South Brooklyn Iron Foundry and Steam Engine Works, AKA South Brooklyn Boiler Works, was located between Imlay and Van Brunt, Bowne and Summit Streets, nearest Summit. There is a unlabeled structure at this location on the 1869 map. The South Brooklyn Engine Works and Foundry were listed at this address on the 1880 map. It was listed on the 1886 map. The South Brooklyn Iron Foundry and Steam Engine Works was shown on the 1886 map between Imlay, Van Brunt, Bowne and Summit Streets. It was also known as the South Brooklyn Steam Engine Works, and the South Brooklyn Boiler Works both also located at Van Brunt and Summit Sts, Brooklyn. In 1890 they had offices on Wall Street. They also had a dry dock in the Erie Basin.
For more information and images see South Brooklyn Iron Works
New York Wire and Wire Rope, Columbia Iron Works, and Columbia Engineering Works - Imlay between Verona and Williams (now Pioneer Street) corner of Imlay and Williams
There was a building indicated at the corner of Williams and Imlay on the 1869 map. It may say "wire Works" but it is not very clear. There was a unlabeled brick building at this address on the 1880 map. Shown but not labeled on the 1886 map. Listed as Columbia Iron Works on the 1898-99 map. There was a building on this corner with a date of "1900" over the main door. Listed in 1904 map.
For more information and images see New York Wire and Rope Company
1912: Columbia Engineering Works boiler makers at Pioneer and Imlay were involved in proceeding for involuntary bankruptcy in November 1912. The creditors wer Munkenbeck Brothers 88 Hamilton ave, Thomas Grogan's son, 403 Van Brunt and the sharp Brothers at 68 Summit street. The creditors claimed that the company's liability was $80,000 and thier assets only $25,000.
Eagleton (Eggleston Spring Co), East side of Imlay between Verona and Williams (now Pioneer Street) closer to Verona
The 1880 map shows a wooden building labeled "Wire Works"on the west side of Imlay extending from the corner of William almost to Verona. The 1886 map lists "Eggleston spring company" on the east side of Imlay mid block. Not listed on the 1898-99 map. Not on 1904 map. Unnamed "Store House"listed in 1904. Not listed on the 1907 map.
For more information and images see Eagleton Spring Company
Lidgerwood Iron Works, on Ferris between Coffey (formerly Partition) and Dikeman
There are some unlabeled buildings indicated on the 1869 map in the block between Ferris, Partition and Dikeman and the Buttermilk Channel, but they do not correspond to the position and shape of the buildings on the 1886 map. The 1880 map also shows a small unlabeled brick building in this block. There are unlabeled brick buildings on 1886 map. One of these buildings may be the building indicated on the 1880 map. The position and approximate size are the same, although the outline is slightly different. Buildings still standing 2013.
For more information and images see Lidgerwood
P. H. Gill & Sons Forge and Machine Works - Philip H Gill, Lorraine at Otsego
There are no buildings indicated at Lorraine and Otsego on the 1869 map and Lorraine is listed as Leonard St. The 1880 does not show any buildings in the area. Not on 1886 map. On the 1907 map on Otsego between Lorraine and Creamer. No longer standing.
In 1900 Philip H Gill premises were listed as "southerly side of Lorriane street, about seventy feet east of Otsego street".
For more information and images see P. H. Gill and sons, Forge and Machine Works
James H. Williams, Drop Forging, 9 Richards Street
The 1869 map does not show any buildings on the east ride of Richards between Seabring and Bowne. The 1880 map shows an unlabeled wood frame building in this location. On the 1886 map there is a small brick buildings on two lots on the east side of Richards between Seabring and Bowne. The 1907 map shows J. H. Williams & Co. Machine and Forge Shop as a much bigger complex at this location.
For more information and images see James H. Williams, Drop Forging
Richardson and Boynton Co., Van Brundt between Imlay, Bowne and Commerce
On the 1869, 1880 and 1886 maps labeled as Richardson and Boynton Co.. Richardson & Boynton made stoves and furnaces. They were one of the biggest employers in Red Hook before they moved to Dover, New Jersey in 1896.
For more information and images go to Richard and Boynton
Casey's Rosin works - Casey's Rosin Oil Factory - Pitch and Rosin Refinery, Commerce and Richards Streets
The turpentine works were not noted on the 1869 map. The 1880 maps shows "Turpentine Works" on the N E corner of Commerce at Richards. Indicated but not labeled on 1886 map (several of the buildings are wooden). The 1907 map shows a brick building labeled "John Casey Storage" on the South East corner of Commerce and Richards and J Casey Co. Rosin, Oil on the North East corner and extending down Commerce street. Some of the buildings are brick and some are wooden.
In April 1869 a fire caused by a pitch pot that had boiled over was reported at Samuels and McGowan Turpentine Distillery. The address was variously given as "Commerce near Richards" and "Commerce near Van Brunt". The one story building was totally destroyed.
William Carroll age 103 died at his home at 705 Henry street. It was claimed he had never been sick a day in his life and until about 10 months before his death had worked in Casey's rosin factory in south Brooklyn. He was born in Kings Co. Ireland in 1796. He was married to a woman 20 years his junior. He came to America about 1880. He had two sons, John age 51 and William (no age given) and four daughters. (The New York Herald, October 7, 1898 and other papers. http://fultonhistory.com/Fulton.html) In 1895 it was claimed that William Carroll was 107. He and his wife had been married for 80 years. He said he liked his glass of beer but never smoked. Neither he nor his wife need glasses to read.
Glass Works on Delevan between Van Brunt and Richards - Later Progress
Machine Works and Thompson Son and Co.
The 1869 map lists "Glass Works" on the east side of Richards between Commerce and Delevan. The 1880 map lists "La Bastelle Glass Works" mid block on the south side of Delevan between Van Brunt and Richards. The 1886 map lists "Glass Works" at the same location. The 1898-99 map lists "Progress Machine works". Shown on the 1904 map as "Thompson Son & Co. Electrical Machinery" and "Machine Storage Warehouse" (not necessarily for the Thompson Son & Co.). No longer standing.
Progress Machine Works was cited in November 1899 for violation of the Smoke Nuisance Law.
In March 1870 there was a strike at the Constitution Glass Works at Thiery and Co. on Delevan street near Van Brunt.
South Brooklyn Fire Bricks AKA Brooklyn Clay Retort and Fire Brick Works and J. K Brick & Co., Van Dyke between Richards and Van Brunt (both sides of the street)
The J. R. Brick Retort & Fire Brick Works was shown on the 1869 map on either side of VanDyke between Van Brunt and Richards. It was indicated on subsequent maps and is still standing.
For more information and images see Brooklyn Clay Retort
Comte Building, corner Ferris and Wolcott
Not on the 1886 map. Built between 1889 and 1926. Several masonry buildings unlabeled on 1904 map.
Le Comte & Comapany of Brooklyn were manufacturers of cans and metallic compounds."Le Comte & Co. Celebrating 60th Anniversary Established in 1903 Le Comte & Company manufacturers of a specialty general line of metal cans and metal waste baskets are currently marking the sixtieth anniversary'
Manhattan Chemical Works, Zophar Mills, between Dykeman, Wolcott, Ferris and the Buttermilk Channel
The same shaped buildings were indicated on the 1880 and 1886 maps and were at the same location on the 1869 map but were not named. On the 1880 and 1886 maps as "Manhattan Chemical Works". Listed as "Zophar Mills Oils and Pitch" on the 1904 map and in several fires in the late 1800s. There is a relatively new building on this site.
Projected Buildings for 1881 S. Walcott st. and W.s. Dikeman st. bet Ferris st and River: frame storage shed --x200 2 story graveled roof Manhattan Chemical Works. (Sanitary and Heating Age, Volume 15)In 1882 a famous fire boat, the Zophar Mills, was built in Wilmington, Deleware at a cost of $75,000. In February 1935 it was being sold for scrap. She was named after a "bookkeeper who performed many deeds of heroism as a volunteer fireman".
Oil Works on Wolcott between Conover and Ferris.
The 1869 map shows unlabeled buildings midblock on the south side of Wolcott between Ferris and Conover. Two brick structures at this location on the 1880 map. The 1886 map shows undesignated brick structures in this area.
In January 1877 and again in August 1877 oil works at Wolcott Street between Conover and Ferris was listed as being owned by "Messrs." Libby, Kimball, and Bartlott.
Leonard & Ellis, Oil Works, Sullivan Street near the Buttermilk Channel
The 1869 maps shows a structure on Sullivan Street near the Buttermilk Channel. The 1880 AND 1886 maps shows "Oil Works" on Sullivan Street near the Buttermilk Channel. Not listed on the 1904 map. No longer standing.
In July 1875 the Leonard & Ellis oil works was nearly destroyed by fire."At one o'clock a workman discovered smoke issuing from the retort room near the agitator........" (some of the article is hart to read.)About twenty-fife men were thrown out of work by the fire.
McCaldin Brothers Lumber Yard, near the Buttermilk channel between Sullivan and Wolcott
No lumber yard listed on Sullivan near the Buttermilk channel on the 1869 map. On the 1886 map as "Lumber Yard". On the 1898-99 as "Lumber Yard". On the 1904 map as "Lumber Yard".
Next to the Leonard and Ellis oil works was a lumber yard owned by the McCaldin brothers. The McCaldin brothers, William J., James, and Joseph, had offices at 79 Broad street in Manhattan and a yard at Sullivan, Ferris and Wolcott streets in Brooklyn. They were dealers in coal, wood and lumber as well as "outfitters" for cattle ships.
R. W. Adams Lumber Yard, between Imlay and Van Brunt, Bowne and Summit.
The 1869 map shows "R W Adams Lumber Yard" between Imlay and Van Brunt near Bowne. There is no notation on one 1880 map at this location. A second 1880 map lists "lumber yard". One 1886 map lists "Lumber Yard" at Bowne between Imlay and Van Brunt. A second 1886 map lists " W. R. Adams & Co. Lumber Yard" at this location. The 1907-08 map just lists "lumber yard". Still listed as R. W Adams Lumber Yard in 1916 this location is now the home of a coach bus repair shop and the entrance to the Brooklyn Cruise Terminal.
W. R. Adams Lumber was also listed at India Wharf on the 1869 map. See India Wharf in this section.
R. W. Adams & co. was started by Russell W Adams (c1825-1888) and continued by his son, William R. Adams (c1851-1918).
In 1861 R. W. Adams lumber advertised hard woods - especially black walnut.
Marx and Rawolle Glycerine works, 179 Williams street -
Not indicated by name on the 1869, 1880 or 1886 maps. No longer standing. It may have been located at the corner of William and Conover.
Marx and Rawolle became partners in 1870. Marks & Rowell's manufacturers of glycerine and shellac were located at 179 William Street in 1871 when they received an award for "best glycerine". They were listed in The Trow City Directory of 1874 at 179 William and 531 W. 59th.
Hamilton Wadding Co
Not indicated on the 1869 map. On the 1880 map King between Conover and and Van Brunt - brick building listed as Hamilton Wadding Works. On the 1886 map but not named.
On May 14, 1858 fire broke out at the Cotton Batting Manufactory in William Street between Van Brunt and Imlay, in Red Hook. The building was 200 feet by 50 feet and three stories high. The fire originated on the third story. Damages of machinery and merchandise was estimated at $50,000. The books and papers were saved. "The establishment was known as the Hamilton Manufacturing Company and the business was carried on by Messrs. Bellows & Co. who purchased out the former proprietors in January last". At the time of the fire the company employed four men and thirty six "girls". Due to the efforts of the fire department the fire did not spread to neighboring buildings. Estimated loss $100,000.
Mica Roofing, Childs & Childs and the Barrett Company, foot of Smith street
Not indicated on the 1869 map or 1880 maps. Listed on the 1886 map between Smith and Court below Halleck Street as the Brooklyn Roofing co. - mostly frame construction.
New York Mica Roofing Works, foot of Smith Street, were makers of patented mica and tar paper for roofing. They had offices in Manhattan and were also listed in Williamsburg.
Foundry corner of Wolcott and Ferris - later Ice Company at same location
On the 1869 map there is an unlabeled building on Ferris near Wolcott. It maintains its size and shape on the 1880 and 1886 maps. On the 1880 and 1886 maps on Ferris and Wolcott, is a brick building labeled "foundry". No longer standing.
Henry Esler & Co, Ship Engine and boiler makers
On the 1861 insurance map at the corner of the Southern pier of the Atlantic Basin bordering on King street - showing a brick building with tin roof, "coped" and including a boiler shop 100x50 feet, smith shop and finishing shop, coal storage, foundry and an office - listed as Esler & Co Engine & Boiler Works.
On the 1886 map this building is labeled "oil works".
Esler and Company Boiler Factory was located near the south-western end of the Atlantic Basin. Henry Esler & Co. built steam engines and boilers. In 1862 they built the machinery for the steamer Shantung which was built for the "China coast trade"She is about 1,000 tons burden, of a beautiful model, and fitted with an overhead beam engine, like that of our river boats. This engine was an object of great interest to a select party of engineers, editors and others who were invited, during the outward trip down the bay, to witness the operations of two different valve motions, with which it had been fitted, and which were arranged to be changed from one to the other, to show the effects of each. The engine has a cylinder fifty inches in diameter, with a stroke of ten feet. It was built by H. Esler & Co., Atlantic Dock Works, Brooklyn, and is a substantial and excellent piece of mechanism.The cylinders of the engines on the Shantung had a diameter of 50 inches and the length of the stoke was 11 feet. (A stroke is the action of a piston travelling the full length of its locomotive cylinder or engine cylinder in one direction. Wikipedia). There were two boilers in the hold which did "not use blowers". Henry Esler & Company also build the machinery for a companion ships the Steamer Kiang-Tze, the Shan See and the Sze Chuen.
Eastman & Mandeville Co. Tuna Oil Refinery, Oil Works, between King street and Clinton Wharf at the Buttermilk Channel
On 1861 map as Esler and Co. Boiler makers. See above. The 1880 and 1886 maps show a brick structure labeled "oil works" between King street and Clinton Wharf at the Buttermilk Channel .
Atlases of New York city. Insurance maps of New York. Brooklyn Atlas 63. Vol. 1, 1886 shows a brick building labeled Eastman & Manville Co. Tuna Oil Refinery
Rogers Match Factory
Not labeled on the 1869, 1880 or 1886 maps. News articles indicate that it was at the corner of Columbia and Delavan. One article lists it at Richards and Ewen streets. The NYPL has Brooklyn maps online for 1874 and 1875 but they do not contain details of businesses in the area.
FIRE: April 28, 1869 caused by matches in the drying room - $100 damage. Factory owned by Wm H Rogers corner of Columbia and Delavan.Phosphorus match production was a simple process. A splinter of wood was dipped in melted phosphorus (sometimes combined with other chemicals), then covered with gum or glue and set to dry. The process is hazardous both from the danger of fire and the danger of phosphorus poisoning.
Willis and Son Match Factory
The Willis & Son match factory was not shown on the 1869, 1880 or 1886 maps on Seabring street.
FIRE: August 29, 1871 A fire in a two story frame building at 57 Seabring street in the William and Son match factory was caused by matches drying in the sun. The business was not insured - damage $1,000. The fire spread to #59 and unoccupied building owned by Francis B Cutting.
J. A. H. Bell Paint Mill - on Columbia between Luquer and Nelson Streets
The 1869 map lists J. A. H. Bell Paint Mill on Columbia between Luquer and Nelson Streets. There is nothing listed and no building indicated at this location on the 1880 and 1886 maps.
James A H. Bell was raised by his "uncle" Augustus Bell. Both had some connection to white lead paint manufacturing in Brooklyn although it was not the main occupation of either of them. Both were also major philanthropists - giving generously of their money and personal collections to a variety of Brooklyn Institutions.
There was a fire in 1869 at the Jessup and Childs Paint factory on Summit Street. They were located on the north side of Hamilton Avenue.
R. H. DeMars manufactured overalls at 399 Van Brunt street. See DeMars
Iron Works between Van Dyke and Elizabeth streets at Dwight
The 1886 map shows an Iron Works between Van Dyke and Elizabeth streets at Dwight
Car Depot between Van Dyke and Partition streets at Richards
The 1886 map shows a Car Depot between Van Dyke and Partition streets at Richards
Perhaps the most common industries in Red Hook in the mid to late 1800s were "iron works" - manufactures of large machinery such as boiler makers, hydraulic pumps, steam rollers, ship parts, stoves, etc. These were companies that incorporated foundries as part of the manufacturing process.
These businesses had several things in common including the types of employees which included: boiler makers, riveters, draftsmen, pattern makers, blacksmiths, machinists, molders, foundry workers, superintendents, foremen, salesmen, sales manager, general managers, purchasing agents, and traffic managers. As well as common laborers who fetched and carried. Puddlers, rollers, molders, and heaters where categories of skilled iron workers.
The "works" included: offices, drafting rooms, blacksmith shops, forges, foundries, production sheds, machine shops, erecting shops, powerhouses, chimneys, and pattern storage areas.
In 1899 there was an ironworkers strike in Red Hook. The strike was confined to union members who were demanding shorter hours. The asked for a scale of an eight hour day on "old" work and a nine hour day on "new" work. Non striking members were working "on a scale of nine hours a day". Riveters were getting $2.80 a day. Heaters [?] were getting $1.50 a day. The competition was working a ten hour day for less pay.
Ten years earlier in January 1889 Pittsburgh Iron workers went out on strike agains reduction in wages:
Puddlers from $4.00 to $3.50 per tonAnother take on 1889 wages indicated:
In the Tudor Iron-works are three hundred and thirty men. One bar mill roller makes $8.13 a day; three guide mill rollers make $6.50; four bar mill heaters make $7; six guide mill heaters make $5.25; six puddlers get $4.66, and ten puddlerhelpers $2.50. Thirty skilled iron-workers average $4.66 a day. The other three hundred employes, or ninety per cent. of the entire force, earn $1.75 a day.By 1893 machinery was replacing many iron workers jobs.
PuddlersPattern making and molding were the most highly skilled workers in the foundry. Puddlers, heaters, pattern makers, moulders and machinists were considered craftsmen.
On July 20, 1901 the Brotherhood of Boiler Makers and Iron Ship Builders of South Brooklyn Lodge No 171 gave their sixth annual picnic at the Old Iron Pier at Coney Island.
|Wooden machine parts patterns|
Warehouses and Stores in Lower Red Hood in the late 1800s
Warehouses and stores in the lower section of Red Hook in the late 1800s included:
the New York Warehouses, the German America Warehouse, Merchants Stores, Beard Stores, Stranahan's Stores,
and the Revere Sugar Warehouse.|
Red Hook Stores - New York Warehouse
The New York Warehouse (AKA Red Hook Stores), 480- 500 Van Brunt Street, built in 1869, (now a Fairway Supermarket) was indicated on the 1886 map of Red Hook.
German American Warehouse (German American Stores)
Listed on the 1886 map the German American Warehouse was located at Ferris street between Partition (now Coffey) and Van Dyke streets. According to A Preservation Plan for Red Hook 2009 the German American Warehouse predates 1869 and was used to store cotton. The building still stands at 106 Ferris Street. An article in the Brooklyn Eagle could indicate that the building was constructed in 1876 (see below).
Photo Maggie Land Blanck, 2013
The undated map which was made close to 1900 labeled the one story brick warehouses between Ferris and Conover, Partition and Van Dyke as belonging to the German America Warehouse. These building are shown on the 1886 map but were not labeled. They were also unlabeled on the 1880 and 1899 map. However, they were labeled as "German America Warehouse company" on another 1880 map by Daniel Richards. These buildings are still standing.
The Merchant stores at the end of Van Dykes and Ferris streets at pier 41 were build in 1873.
Johnson & Hammond later George Hammond & Co - Hammond & Co. Naval Storage
The storage shed and yard of Hammond and Co Naval Storage was located on the Buttermilk Channel south of Dikeman street. In an undated map it was noted than tar and terpentine were stored in the shed and resin in barrels was stored in the yard.The Johnsons
Robert Johnson senior was born in England circa 1813. He immigrated to Brooklyn circa 1831. He married Mary _____ and had at least five children.George Le Baron Hammond
1855 Census: Brick, $4,000 4th Ward Brooklyn, Lebaron Hammond M 55, merchant, Wife Maria Hammond F 44 Child Maria L Hammond F 20 Child Mary E Hammond F 20 Child Ann A Hammond F 17 Child Rachael F Hammond F 13 Child George L Hammond M 12 Child Harriet Hammond F 7 Child Rosana W Hammond F 5 Child Ellen Hammond F 3 Child Caroline A Hammond F 0 Sister E R West F 49, sister
Jeremiah P Robinson and William Beard built the Erie Basin in the 1850s and 60s. The Beard and Robinson stores were built in the 1860s and 70s.
Revere Sugar Warehouse originally part of the Beard Stores
The Revere Sugar Warehouse was part of a large sugar firm in Boston. Much was made of the razing of parts of the Revere Sugar Refinery complex between 2004 and 2009. Part of the complex included a warehouse build by Beard on the bulkhead at the end of Richards Street. I am unsure of the year this warehose was build but it was standing at the time of the 1886 map. There is nothing in the Brooklyn Eagle about Revere sugar in Brooklyn before 1904.
The Engineer - Interior of Boiler Room at Mssrs Havemeyer and Elder's Sugar House, Brooklyn, May 4, 1877
I assume they are shoveling coal into the boilers.
The Havermeyer Sugar house was in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. There were, however, two sugar houses in Red Hook: an unnamed sugar house is listed on the 1886 map at India Wharf, and the Revere Sugar Warehouse was in the lower section of Red Hook in the 1880s.
Processing steps in sugar refining included: melting, clarification, decolorization, evaporation, crystallization and finishing. Animal charcoal was used as a filter to discolor sugar. The smell of cane sugar refining was very sweet. Beet sugar refining gave off a very unpleasant odor. Sugar refining produced large clouds of smoke. A sugar mill generated odor and dust. Air pollutants from the process include bits of the fiber residue of the cane, fuel oil or coal emissions. Waste water contained pathogens from the production process.
Animal charcoal is largely used in sugar-refining, the dark-colored syrup made by dissolving the raw sugar in water passing through the charcoal perfectly clear and bright, and capable on crystallization of yielding a perfectly white crystalline lump-sugar. When a sufiicient thickness of the animal charcoal, in bulk or in layers, is used, it is capable of removing upwards of 85 per cent of the organic, and 25 per cent of the mineral matter from the water filtered through it.As it absorbes the impurities animal charcoal or "black bone" deteriorates with each usage. Spent black bone was used as a fertilizer.
|The Gowanus Canal
In 1890 Grain Elevators in the Gowanus Canal included: Bowne's Elevator (Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac 1890)
|Aerial Views of Red Hook|
| Fortune 1940, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck|
Red Hook 1940.
At the bottom of the image outlined in black are the Red Hook Houses. Originally built for the families of dockworkers, the Red Hook Houses opened in 1938 as the first high-rise public housing complex constructed in the city. (Red Hook Recreation Area, City of New York Parks & Recreation)
1. Norwegian Seamen's Church, 2. Visitation R. C. Church, 3. Worthington Hydraulic Pump, 4. American Can Company, formerly Chesebrough Manufacturing 5. Atlantic Basin, 6. India Wharf, 7. Hamilton Avenue.
Also visible: Jersey City and Hoboken at top, lower Manhattan on right top, Governor's Island - mid left.
| Collection of Maggie Land Blanck|
Gowanus Improvement Triborough Bridge Authority, November 1, 1941, Robert Moses, Chairman
The Gowanus improvement included an elevated highway above 3rd Avenue from Owl's Head Park to Hicks Street and the widening of Hicks Street from Hamilton Avenue to Atlantic Avenue.
This image shows the construction of the part of the elevated highway across the Gowanus canal. Looking west there are the playing fields and pool of the Red Hook Recreational Area. Also seen are the Red Hook Houses, a high-rise public housing project build in 1938 for the local dockworkers and their families. See Red Hook Park
|Collection of Maggie Land Blanck|
Gowanus Improvement, Triborough Bridge Authority, November 1, 1941, Robert Moses, Chairman
1. Governor's Island. 2. Atlantic Basis. 3. The New York Dock Company warehouses on Imlay Street. 4. The Red Hook Houses. 5. Columbia Street, 6. Erie Basin. 7. Coffey Park
|Collection of Maggie Land Blanck|
|1907 map showing the Red Hook Section of
|Collection of Maggie Land Blanck|
|Map showing the Red Hook Section of
|Collection of Maggie Land Blanck|
| Map showing the Red Hook Section of
Brooklyn with Hamilton Avenue, and the Erie and Atlantic basins.|
What Brought the Peters (Petersens), Petermanns and Kettles to
Red Hook Brooklyn, What Did They Do There and Why Did They Leave?|
In 1886 the Atlantic Dock:
"several schooners with sugar from the South, as well as the Hamburg steamer, California, which after landing her 650 steerage passengers, is now loading grain for the return voyage . The weekly service for the Hamburg line to this point insures an air of business at this dock even in the dullest times. Here also are the canal boats which receive freight of the Erie canals."In 1892:
GENERAL SHIPPING NEWS
|SECOND PLACE - CHURCHES IN RED HOOK - NORWEGIANS IN RED HOOK - Other Images of Brooklyn - LIFE IN RED HOOK MID TO LATE 1800S - RED HOOK TAVERNS SALOONS AND LIQUOR STORES IN THE MID TO LATE 1800S - Red Hook Butchers - Red Hook Celebrities - Red Hook Restaurants - Red Hook Waterfront - Red Hook Streets|
|HOME - FRITZ KETTLER - HANNA PETERS - JOHANN BEREND PETERMANN - IMMIGRATION|
|Adams Lumber - Atlantic Flour - Chesebrough/Vaseline - Eagleton Sprint Co. - P. H. Gill & Sons Forge and Machine Works - Lidgerwood - New York Wire and Rope - Pioneer Iron Works - South Brooklyn Iron - Brooklyn Clay Retort - James H. Williams, Drop Forging - Worthington Hydraulic Pump Works - Richardson and Boynton Stoves and Furnaces -|
|A Preservation Plan for Red Hook, Brooklyn Lots of good images and information on the history of Red Hook|
History of the Isthmian Steamship Lines, Erie Basis, Red Hook Brooklyn
includes an arial view of the Erie Basin Terminal and tons of other
images and information |
|Port Side, Cultural Tourism|
|History of the Isthmian Steamship Lines, Erie Basis, Red Hook Brooklyn includes an arial view of the Erie Basin Terminal and tons of other images and information|
|Red Hook Waterfront, The O'Connell Organization is a family owned and operated real estate development business. Clearly they love the Red Hook waterfront and their website contains some fabulous photos of the old warehouses and other buildings in Red Hook.|
|Port Side, Cultural Tourism|
|Water Front Museum and Showboat Barge|
|A Preservation Plan For Red Hook 2009|
|Red Hook Flickr Group|
|Russell Granger has a magnificent collection of early Brooklyn images at Whitman's Brooklyn|
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|© Maggie Land Blanck - Page created 2004 - Latest update, January 2015|